How do you account for the changing responses of Frederik II to the crusade to the east tell by righteous III (1215-1229)? The aim of this turn out is to list and explain the changing responses of Frederik II to the crusades to the East decl ard by Innocent III. The main issues that will be discussed are the human relationship between the emperor and Innocent III, and the main consequences of this relationship with regard to crusading, Frederik IIs ambiguous part in the failing of the 5th Crusade, the emperors excommunication by Gregory IX in 1227 and, finally, how the excommunicated Frederik managed to conclude a treaty with al-Kamil at Jaffa in 1229, which ended in the replication of Jerusalem to the Chris- tians.
When Innocent III came to power in January 1198, he immediately in- augurated a policy in the East which he was to follow throughout his pon- tificate. Everything was subordinated to the recapture of Jerusalem and the reconquest of the Holy farming. Innocent III was intensely interested in cru- sading. Between 1198 and 1229, it became advance that the crusade was the only instrument a pope was fitted to rely upon for widespread support, whe- ther it be to recover the Holy Land, to armed combat heresy, or to defend the Church itself. Consequently, one of Innocent IIIs beginning(a) acts as pope was to promote another crusade, the quaternary Crusade.
regrettably however, this crusade suffered a series of mischances and never reached the Holy Land at all. Through the intervention of Venetian commercial interests and dis- communicable Byzantine princes, it was diverted against the current govern- ment of Byzantium and ended in the dim capture of Constantinople in 1204. Although the Byzantines eventually managed to recover their ca- pital in 1261, the Fourth Crusade undoubtedly did lasting damage to their empire. By the age it was over, the frictions and misunderstandings be- tween East and West, which had begun with the First Crusade, had...
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