Tuesday, March 12, 2019
Explain the principal social perspective
Functionalism is a structural (macro) emplacement that suggests that our behaviour is influenced by the ordering is organised. They call up that the institutions fox a major impact on how we convey in the orderliness. The indivi sopranos argon constrained by the companionship, and the failalists views the mortals in the party as a puppets. Functionalists says we as an idiosyncratic train little spot to the highest degree what we do and the institution influences us. This can be earnn in hostelry in upsets of laws, norms, value (norm underpins values), beliefs and relationship. This theory suggests that the various(prenominal)s in the society must feel a bun in the oven properly otherwise, they be regarded as deviant and ar punished.Functionalism guesss that every p down(p)share of the society are inter mutualist with each other, which servicings society to keep going. It is to the highest degree like a human body, where different parts of the body has a f unction unneurotic, which keep it a fail and wellnessy this is called organic analogy. For instance, the family helps by manner of speaking up the next generation well-nigh the patterns of shared and st commensurate behaviour that are called complaisant order. Different cordial institution such as, levelheaded pact, political system, wellness system, family system and gentility system work to lay outher to maintain a stable society from generation to generation. For instance, the legal system caters laws, norms that underpin values, guard, discipline and order and the wellness system provides free wellness services, family system provides help in reproduction that increases the economy. All of these institutions to croakher to form an integrated unit society or well-disposed mental synthesis.The major function of these fond constitutions are to watch individual to follow the norms that underpins values and impute them, which leads to value consensus. fit in to Tal cott Parson, society is ground on value consensus where shared and common values and behavioural norms lead to a common culture. Consensus is an agreement in the society to the highest degree the values, and be possessed of freedom, opposeity, justice and fairness. These values are acquired by passing down from generation to generation, through with(predicate) primary accessibleisation. These values benefit everybody equally, some the example of values that hold up in our society are decently for equality, justice and privacy. There are mechanism of kind govern in the society, like punishment and rewards. neighborlyisation and social control ensure that there is balance wheel in the society. The process of socialisation achieves equilibrium in the society, whereas family, religion, law and mass media, which are the agents of socialisation, are responsible for maintaining the equilibrium.The functionalist believes that the westward societies are meritocratic, which mean s the system rewards the individual in the society innovationd on their effort and talent and social mobility is likely in this system. They alike believe that the great unwashed in the society can achieve hold by workings hard and there is equality of opportunity in the society.Talcott Parsons proposed the functionalist approach, which considers health and unsoundness and assumes blackball definition of health. He described that ailment is a form of deviance that distracts proper functioning of the society, in the selfsame(prenominal)(p) focal point that crime does. Ill members in the society must practise a social role where sick role consists of four elements, dickens of which are recompense and responsibilities. The rights associated with the sick role was to be exc employ from formula social obligation and be bootd for, whereas the responsibilities were to take steps to gravel dampen and co-operating with the health check professionals such as doctors. This view suggests that inauspicious must be cared for and must be dealt with as soon as possible in order for the society to run smoothly.1. MarxismThe founder of Marxism is Karl Marx (1818-1883), who was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist and ultra socialist.Marxism structural (macro) perspective, where our behaviour is determined by the way society is organised. The social institutions such as laws, rules and norms have big impact on how we post and we are controlled by the society.Marxists believes that the society is non interdependent, instead it believes that economy is the base or infrastructure of the society, and our behaviour depends upon the economy of the society. Marxists sees the society as a system that operates to devil profit for the upper class. Whereas the working class are socially engineered to conform the needs of the upper class who benefit from the societies utilize capitalistic economic system. Capitalists exists all around the world and the eco nomies of industrial societies in the west are ground on capitalism. Marxists explains that the capitalists economies compromises two main social class the capitalists and the workers. The upper class throng were the capitalists who were regarded as knock-down(a), whereas the workers or the labours were the trim back class mountain and were seen as powerless puppets.The capitalists exploits the workers since they do not get recognition for what they do as get have minimum operate and make surplus profit by persuading the lower class to spoil the goods by advertising. The capitalists are opposite of socialism since the capitalists control what we think and what we do, the working class race are brain washed into accepting limit of beliefs that benefits the capitalists. These messages are seen to be transmitted through the cultural institutions such as media, which are controlled by the capitalists to influence the workers. The capitalists creates the dominant values that ben efits the powerful and disadvantages the powerless. For instance, the monarch cl determination their position as god gifted and the religion help supports their point, out-of-pocket to which the working class mess are persuaded to what have to say since they have faith in their religion.Inequality in capitalist societies lifelessness exists and is unfair but they do not recognise it be hunting expedition the capitalists convince them that it is their fault for not achieving what they want. For instance, the capitalists would convince working class by aspect the GCSE result of upper class is higher than that of lower class because they have been able to provide tete-a-tete tutors for their children, and it would be their fault if their children got low grade, since they were not able to provide their children with private tutors.Marxist believes that the definition of health and illness and the health and social care services provided to the powerless serve the interests of t he powerful dominant classes. The capitalists regard stack who do not produce wealthiness as icteric. Marxists believe that doctors are the example of agents that work for capitalists interests sooner than those of long-sufferings so that they can go to work as soon as possible and provide the capitalists with healthy work force. The government allows the capitalists to make profit from the products that cause health issues, such as alcohol and tobacco. The industries that capitalists establish cause to begrime the atmosphere and produce toxic waste that affect the people and get ill. This approach believes that illness is related to difference in the social class. For instance, wiped out(p) areas have higher levels of illness and have lower life expectancy. accord to this approach, the government do no handle this issue as this would make people ill, as this leads this money and the capitalists would make advantage of it.1. FeministsFeminism is a range of transactions and i deologies that work towards remainder, which establish and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, someoneal and social rights for women. Feminism seeks to establish equal opportunities for women in different sectors like education and employment and supports for equal rights and equality of women. The feminists believe that gender difference still exists in todays society.Feminism is a perspective that believes that women are disadvantaged in the society and should have equal rights with the men. The feminists are unfavorable of patriarchy. Patriarchy is a social system where the men hold the power and authority. The women have fought throughout the history for their rights and equality, which caused creation of waves of feminism. The first wave was observed in the mid late 19th century, campaigning for the change in rights for the women in early 20th century. They campaigned for two main strategy right to vote and right to be educated. In 1928, the women were given the ri ght to vote, but only well-off women over 30 who owned property were allowed.The heartbeat wave of feminism was observed from 1960s, this lead to the formation of Womens pays deed (WRM) and Womens Liberation Movement (WLM). These organisations campaigned for right to equal pay act, internal violence, sex discrimination, employment, violence services, education, family and health & social care. WRM and WLM were successful in achieving their rights for constitute pay Act in (1970), Sex Discrimination Act (1975) and right to be educated and be employed.Due to variation in creed of causes of gender inequality and solutions to it, there was formation of three types of feminism vainglorious feminism, Marxist feminism and ultra feminism. Liberal feminism proposed that gender inequality stills exists in the society because of social and cultural attitudes that is gained by the process of socialisation i.e. primary and secondary socialisation. Liberal feminist helped to countenance equality through Sex Discrimination and Equal Pay Act. Marxist feminism explained that the capitalists to recognise profit using women. They would persuade women to buy groceries such as framework softener, so that they would spend their money and exploit them. Radical feminism explains that the society is ruled by the men, whereas the womanish are oppressed, exploited and are regarded as second-class citizen. It asseverates that men exploit women by relying on free domestic help labour and men may use aggression to control women in the home. Through the gender role socialisation, women are convinced to accept female person subordination and see motherhood as a key goal in life.The feminist writers have focused male domination in the medical checkup examination profession and its effects on women. They are interested with the way in which pregnancy and childbirth have been regarded as a medical issue rather than as natural process. Feminist writers have protested on the way w hich the medical professions and related pharmaceutical industries have given low priority about development and promotion of male contraceptives. It explains how women had to face medical conditions such as mental health, anxiety and depression using the contraceptives, imputable to which their position in the society is exploited. Theorist have been concerned about the impact of social inequality on womens health and dual role of women.1. InteractionismThe founder of interactionism was Max Weber.Interpretivist describe that the society and the social structure are seen as the creation of individuals. Unlike functionalists, they see individuals of the society as actors not as puppets. The individuals have free will and are able to make choices of their own. Unlike in the functionalism, the power come from bottom to up. They believe that the peoples choices or decisions are influenced by how they make sense datum of social situations. For instance, marriage means different things t o different person an individual whose parents are divorced major power have negative definition of marriage, whereas the individual who have grown up in a good family might have positive definition of marriage.The Interpretivist suggests that people make impression on how you perceive symbols, they make impression on what you wear. For instance, people will make guess that you are smart, just because you wear glasses. These theorists are concerned with the low-toned or micro scale situations rather than the systems, they focus on the individuals in social interaction situations. Interpretivist believe that our identity is based on how we see ourselves or how other sees us. For instance, if a student in the school is praised and us labelled as smart, therefore he/she might do come apart his/her studies as this helps to boost their self-esteem. We get influenced by media, friends and family about how we see ourselves.According to Browne labelling refers to defining a person or a sort out in a certain way-as a particular type of person or a group. According to Interpretivist people are inclined to the labelled and it can actually damage some group of people such as disabled people. The person labelled behaves in the same way expected and they have fulfilled the prophecy and lived up to the label.Interactionist believe that health and illness are the product of social construction that affects peoples well being. They believe that ailment is socially constructed. Disease does not exist as a social phenomenon until it is somehow perceived as animated (Rosenberg 1989). This approach focuses on negotiation between the patients and medical practitioners. For instance, a female patient would feel comfortable to talk to female doctor about her reproductive health rather than a male doctor. They are concerned with labelling and self-image and social interaction differences affected by class, ethnicity and age. Symbolic interactionism is critical of Marxists and Functionalists as Interpretivist look individual as subjective through doctor and patient exchange. The argument here is that illness is a social diagnosis among actors rather than just a matter of physiological malfunction.1. PostmodernismPostmodernism is an approach in sociology as well as in other subjects, which believes that society is changing speedily and continuously, which is marked as an uncertainty and the social structure are being replaced by whole range of different and constantly changing social relationships. This theory believes that modern society was demonstrable at around 1750s and has been replaced by the end of 20th century due to massive social change. The Functionalists and the Marxism perspective might be interested in modernity as they cerebration that if properly understood, societies could be improved. But the postmodernists argue that there is no lifelong a place in sociology for these type of theory.This theory suggests that the postmodern society has no progress, predictability (norms that people would predict to behave), order and continuity, due to which insecurities and anxiety has been unquestionable in people documentation in postmodern society as people do not know how to behave and what is expected from others. Order, predictability and continuity are essential as it gives us routine and reassurance that provides us safety and security. Society has changed as it has gone through different industrial whirling or industrialisation, technological advances, urbanisation and secularisation. Industrialisation is the process of going from rude economy to heavy industrial/manufacturing economy. Secularisation is the decline of belief in religion due to rise of science whereas urbanisation means faecal matter of people from rural areas to towns and cities.Postmodernists suggests that modern society no longer exists and we live in a postmodern era or in post modernity, where the society is media saturated. Due to the revo lution of technology, globalisation has occurred where the world has become a smaller place to live in. The mass media has dominated our lives to the extent that we cast media images with reality. This theory concludes that people in the postmodern society can have their own form of identities, how they want to see themselves or how they want to particularise themselves. There is diversity, choices and pick and mix culture in this society. There is no imposition on people on how to behave and there is tractableness in the work. Due to fluidity and flexibility in the postmodern society, people might feel insecure and unsafe.1. Collectivists and red-hot RightsCollectivistsCollectivists believes that their goal are to a greater extent important than the individual goals because they believe that society as a whole has more importance than the individual alone. This theory focuses on the importance of the society and community and gives priority to the group goals than the individual goals.This approach aims to address the inequalities in the society due to different levels of wealth and status in the society. With an aim to sort out the inequalities, welfare state was established to get liberate of five giant evils want (poverty), idleness (unemployment), squalor ( myopic quality housing) and ignorance (underachievement). operate were made free after these giant evils were identified. To eradicate disease existent in the society, NHS service was established in 1948 to make sure that the people lived healthy life. The basic principle of collectivism is to provide people with education, health and social services for the individuals in the society who cannot afford it through taxes then access on the basis of rights as opposed to the ability to pay.These helped to provide foundation for the well-being State which is based on the collectivists principle birthplace to grave or child to old age pension. This approach was follow by The Labour Party who represen ted workers which aimed for the redistribution of wealth through taxes. In this policy, the government would cut off taxes from the wealthy people and share it with the poor (shares some ideas with Marxists). Collectivists believes that we have equal rights and the government should administer responsibility for Welfare State.The New Rights criticises the Collectivism as it creates the dependency culture. They point out that people become irresponsible, lazy and don not work as benefits are demotivating for the people.New rightsThe New Right was popular during 1980s. They are the political movement with a considerable cultural influence that looks at individualism and mistrust of the state as controlling and interfering in what is essentially the private world of the individual. They proposed to cut the public spending and cut taxes. They wanted the rich people to have more money to spend money as they choose. The New rights was critical of Collectivists stating that the rising cos ts to government of the welfare state were preventing the economic growth and the individuals were becoming dependant on the welfare state. The New Rights were critical of public services owned/controlled by the government and they best-loved pro private services e.g. education and health care. The New Right is argued to favour the rich, but they believe that everybody in the society has equal opportunity, so anyone can become rich. E.g. Alan Sugar. They believe that people must be responsible for their own and their familys welfare and they should not be dependent on the government. The New Rights are completely opposite to Collectivism. The nearly radical New Rights would abolish the Welfare State.g) Bio-medical and social pretencesBio medical casebiomedical work focuses on the forcible or biological aspects of disease and illness. The doctors or the health care professionals are associated with the care and treatment of diseases in this form of health. The bio medical pose accept a negative definition of health. The negative definition of health explains that the individual believes that they have good state of health and wellbeing because they have absence of somatic illness, disease, injury, mental stress, free from pain and discomfort. The bio medical model of is dominant model in our society since it is based on objectivity thus this model has influenced or convinced people in the society. This model emphasises on diagnosis and treatment of the individuals separately from their living condition, due to which this model is not holistic approach. The reasons for illness are not at the centre of biomedical model.This model believes that health is a biological normality and describe that having ill health is deviant. This model believes that the disease is caused by identical factors such as germs, genes and accidents. They can be identified by having examination tests like blood, urine, saliva test, X-ray and MRI. They accept that the professionals diagnose disease then treatment is identified and cure is offered to the patient. The professionals views the human body as a machine and see things very clinically and do not really take consideration to peoples feeling.They often promote the view that disease or illness is temporary. This model indicates that we all have equal chance of getting ill and some people get ill due to weak health, whereas some people get ill due to factors such as weak sanitation. It assumes that medical treatment has had the most important impact on improving the health of individual. For instance, the NHS helps in the lengthy and preserves life, but this can be argued as health of an individual had already started to get better due to access to clean water, course session and diet.The strength of bio medical model of health is that it is based on scientific knowledge and research and has provided many telling treatments for disease and physical condition. The bio medical model of health has be suc cessful to provide many effective cure and treatments for disease throughout the history of humankind. The weakness of biomedical model of health is that the treatments can be expensive and require training or expertise to deliver and this model focuses on the individual and pays insufficient maintenance to environmental and social factors, which is not a holistic approach.Social ModelThe social model accepts the positive definition of health. The positive definition of health can be described as the achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability. This model believes that health is a relative de point and a social construct. For instance, being voluptuous centuries ago was a sign of good health, but todays day it is regarded as health issue or overweight. This model claims that ill health is caused due to social factors (including environmental factors). For instance people can get ill because of the unhealthy diet they are consuming, poor living condition or pollution. This model is critical of modern medicine, which are elements of biomedical model. E.g. Iatrogenisis medicine caused deformity in the baby consumed by pregnant mother eaten for nausea sickness.It argues with the biomedical model saying that illness is not randomly distributed and are critical of the assumption that medical treatments has had the most important impact on improving health. Social model can explain why universe of discourse level health improvements were achieved when social conditions improved late 19th/early 20th centuries due to the improvement of sanitation and supply of clean water the health of population improved, and argues it was not because free health services was delivered to the people.The strengths of social model of health is that it focuses population health and takes a broad range of factors into account and it is widely used and understood by health care practitioners in developed countries. This model offers board and flexible and inclu sive way of understanding health and illness. Whereas the weakness of this model is they do not have a excrete way of identifying or classifying health problems and this model cannot explain illness or many mental health problems where there are no physical signs or symptoms, which can be distressing. The social model cannot be used to address an individuals health problems, especially where emergency care is needed.