Friday, May 1, 2020
Five imporant events of the 19 Essay Example For Students
Five imporant events of the 19 Essay Five Important Events of the 1960sAssassinationsDuring the 1960s the world was hit with four different assassinations of some of the leaders in the world who were out to change the way things were. Although some disagreed to the changes that they were trying to do and even threatened them, they still continued to pursue their idea of change. Ngo Dinh Diem became the first president of South Vietnam in 1956 he was a catholic who opposed Communism and sought for an independent Vietnam while it was under French power. Although he was viewed as brutal, corrupt, and prejudice against non-Catholics and Buddhists, he did however help make Vietnam an independent country from France and help prevent Communist rule over all of Vietnam. In 1933 Ngo Dinh Diem was appointed Minister of the Interior by Emperor Bao Dai, at the same time during the 1930s Ngo Dinh Diem began to disapprove of the French rule over Vietnam. He decided to leave the government and follow the many Vietnamese nationalists w ho were also against French rule. In 1950 he left Vietnam and headed for the U.S. after Vietnam had fallen under rule of Viet Minh in August of 1945, seeing Communism as a threat to his values as a Catholic and to an independent Vietnam. President Dwight D. Eisenhowers administration fearing Communist takeovers in Southeast Asia saw Ngo Dinh Diem as a Vietnamese nationalist capable of overturning Communist Viet Minh. In 1954 Viet Minh defeated the French and he won control of Northern Vietnam, thus splitting the country in half. Southern Vietnam remained under the control of Emperor Bao Dai, who was supported by the U.S. greatly. The U.S. appointed Ngo Dinh Diem as Prime Minister under Bao Dai. In 1956 elections were held in South Vietnam and Ngo Dinh Diem was elected the first president of the newly established Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The U.S. military was sent into South Vietnam to form and train an army for the republic, thus becoming the Army of the Republic of Viet nam (ARVN). While Ngo Dinh Diem was president he forcibly moved peasants and rural villagers from their homes and put them into controlled settlements in order to suppress Communist activities. He also drafted all males from the villages into the ARVN. As a result of his acts a group called the National Liberation Front (NLF) was formed in order to overthrow his power as president. Ngo Dinh Diem was also prejudice against non-Catholics and extremely prejudice against the Buddhists, and often denied them of positions in the government. He would also give government positions to his family, such as his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu who headed up the National Police. Ngo Dinh Nhu was a gangster, and often trafficked drugs and promoted prostitution. In May 1963, Buddhists formed large demonstrations against Ngo Dinh Diem. During one of these demonstrations the National Police killed 9 people, in protest against the killings Buddhist monks set themselves on fire, and burned themselves to death. A fter the killings and after the protests of the Buddhist burnings, Ngo Dinh Diem lost his U.S. support and viewed him as an embarrassment to the U.S. also that his government was brutal and corrupt. On November 2, 1963 a group of ARVN generals took over Ngo Dinh Diem government and with the USs support, assassinated Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu. The major effect of Ngo Dinh Diems assassination was that it led North Vietnam to its victory over South Vietnam because of political confusion caused by the assassination during the Vietnam War. It also led to the expansion of the NLF, which aided the North Vietnamese in over throwing the South Vietnamese government during the Vietnam War. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was elected president in 1961 he became the youngest person ever to be elected president. Although his presidency was cut short and he only got to serve 3 years, he was one of Americas greatest presidents. During his presidency he influenced the world, young people looked up to him, brought back old traditions of the United States government, fought for the equal rights of all humans despite their racial background and the color of their skin. He also prevented a Nuclear War and possibly World War III from developing during the Cuban missile crisis. In a speak he said Let the word go forth from this time and place to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americansborn in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritageand unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed and to which we are committed today at home and around the world. He was committed to changing this country and influencing the world to change for the better that no human rights shall be denied to anyone. Were he called for a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. He realized that this was going to be a hard thing to do, and that he wouldnt be president to carryout but he still new he had to start it and he announced that too. He said All this will not be finished in the first 100 days, nor will it be finished in the first 1000 days, nor in the life of this administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin. Then on November 22, 1963 tragedy struck the U.S. and the world. President Kennedy and Mrs. Kennedy were in Dallas, Texas riding in a open convertible on the way to have lunch with Texas Governor John Connally and Connallys wife who were riding with them in the convertible. Out of nowhere two shots were fired rapidly at the preside nt, he was hit in the neck, where the bullet then hit Governor Connally in the back, the second bullet hit the president directly in the head. John Kennedy was rushed to the hospital but never gained consciousness, at 1:00PM he was declared dead.On the 24th of November, John F. Kennedys body was carried through the streets of Washington D.C. as more then 1 million people watched as it passed by. At Kennedys funeral in Arlington National Cemetery hundreds of thousands of people including representatives of 92 different nations. On President Kennedys grave marker was an eternal flame, which will burn forever in memorial of him. The assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald, who worked in the warehouse where the shots had been fired from a window on the sixth floor. While he was being transferred to a different jail, Jack Ruby a nightclub owner in Dallas shot and killed Oswald. The major effect of John F. Kennedys assassination came two hours after President Kennedy was pronounced dead, Vice Pres ident Lyndon Baines Johnson was sworn in as president. Lyndon B. Johnson was said to be a masterful politician. He fought a way against poverty though out the United States. On his State of the Union address, on January 8, 1964, He said his office today, here and now, declares unconditional war on poverty in America, and I urge this Congress and all Americans to join with me in that effort. To do so he created programs to help the poor like Neighborhood Health Care Facilities. Also during his presidency Medi-care and Medi-aid were created to help the elderly and the poor. The most profound effect of John F. Kennedys assassination will never be known, for we will never know what changes might have occurred, or effects that he might have had on the world if he had never been assassinated. One effect is for sure, that no President of the United States will ever ride in a open convertible again without the fear of being attacked. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a American clergyman, Nobel Prize winner, the main leader in the civil rights movement, and a advocate of nonviolent protests. He challenged segregation and racial discrimination during the 1950s and 1960s. He also successful in convincing whites to support the civil rights cause throughout the U.S. and the world. He had excellent public-speaking abilities, were he was praised for having powerful impression on the people he was speaking too, by doing so he was able to influence the people of color to protest nonviolently against discrimination towards them. In 1954, he became pastor at a Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama, where he used his speaking skills and his intellectual influence to promote and encourage nonviolent protest against discrimination. In 1955, he was chosen as president of the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA), which directed the Montgomery bus boycott between 1955 to 1956. He was able to make a positive impression on whites ou tside the south, by not fighting back when attacked while protesting. In February of 1956, he was able to get the federal court to rule that city buses must be desegregated. In 1957 he founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an organization of black churches and ministers that sought to stop racial segregation. The SCLC encouraged the use of nonviolent protests directly against discrimination, such as marches, demonstrations, and boycotts. By doing so he provoked some whites to act out violently against the protesters, which lead to the federal government to confront the discrimination and racism. King was able to make connections with radical activists such as the American Communist Party, who gave him advice and supplied him with money to fund protests. He also met with white Protestant leaders and other white public figures to help him in stopping discrimination. On August 28, 1963, He delivered a speech in Washington D.C. during a massive protest of more tha n 200,000 supporters. The speech he gave will be remembered forever, the I Have a Dream speech. During the speech he was noted for these statements, I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. As a result of his speech a political momentum was created, and soon following was the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The act prohibited segregation in public accommodations, and discrimination in education and employment. Kings speeches against discrimination and teachings of nonviolence protests, won him a Nobel Prize for peace in 1964. Later in 1965, king and the SCLC marched from Selma, Alabama to the capital of Alabama, Montgomery more then 50 miles away to join a voting-rights protest. 300 people made the whole trip taking 5 days to complete and when they arrived in Montgomery they were joined by 20,000 people in front of the capital building were King led the protest. Later President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which banned the use of voter qualification tests that were used often to prevent blacks from registering to vote. King later focused on discrimination in housing and employment in the cities, and moved his headquarters to Chicago. Then in 1967 he started to protest for a redistribution of the nations wealth to help solve the problem of black poverty. On April 4, 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee, while he was supporting garbage workers on strike, he was shot and killed by a sniper, James Earl Ray. The effects of the assassination were felt almost immediately shock and anger swept the U.S. and the world, riots broke out in hundreds of U.S. cities in the days after his death. King has become to represent black courage and achievement, speaking skills, leadership skills, and the ability to influence others to change. Several memorials have be built for him including Martin Luther King, Jr., Center for Social Justice, a research institute located in Atlanta another memorial in Atlanta is Martin Luther King, Jr. National Historic Site, where his birthplace, the Ebenezer Church, and the King Center, where his tomb is located. Then in 1983 Congress dedicated a National Holiday in his honor on the third Monday of January. Robert Francis Kennedy was a great U.S. political leader and Senator, were he was extremely concerned with the problems of urban ghettos and of the poor and disadvantaged.He attended Harvard and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1948, and was later awarded a LL.B. degree from the University of Virginia in 1951. Later in 1951 he was made an attorney in the U.S. Department of Justice. In 1952 he helped manage his brother John F. Kennedys senatorial campaign. After John F. Kennedy was elected president, Robert was appointed U.S. attorney general, while in office he fought on the enforcement of civil rights laws. He later resigned in 1964, and later that year he was elected U.S. senator from New York. As senator he continued to fight for civil rights, and work on the problems in the ghettos and with the poor. During the spring of 1968 he was campaigning for the Democratic Party nomination. In June of 1968, he had won major primaries in Indiana, Nebraska, and California. While leavi ng a celebration in Los Angeles on June 5, 1968 after the California primary was assured that he would win, he was shot. The next day on June 6, 1968 he died after being shot by Jerusalem-born Jordanian Sirhan Bishara Sirhan. His gravesite is in Arlington National Cemetery near John F. Kennedys gravesite. If Robert F. Kennedy was never shot, he may have become president, and bought new changes to the U.S., for he is known for saying in one of his speeches Some men see things as they are and say why? I dream things that never were and say why not?Advancement in Science and TechnologyOne of the biggest achievements in science and technology was the invention of the laser. The idea of the laser and how it would work was first invented by Albert Einstein in 1917. The first laser was outlined by the American physicists Arthur Leonard Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes that were patented in 1958. But a working laser was never seen until 1960 when the American physicist Theodore Maiman obser ved the first laser in action. Then in 1961 a helium-neon gas laser was built by the American physicist Ali Javan. Later in 1966 a liquid laser was constructed by the American physicist Peter Sorokin. In industry lasers are being used on all types of different things ranging from cutting to monitoring earth movements. Powerful laser beams can be focused on a very small spot, where the laser can be used to heat, melt, cut, or vaporize material with very precise accuracy. For example lasers are used to drill holes in diamonds, shape machine tools, cut microelectronics, and create semiconductor chips. Lasers are also being used in an attempt to create controlled nuclear fusion. The short laser pulses allow for high-speed photography, and laser beams are also being used for accurate alignment on construction sites. Lasers are being used to study the movement of the earth to study earthquakes and are also very effective detectors of air pollution. Also lasers have been used to determine the distance between the earth and the moon and other planets too. Genetic Diversity In Agriculture EssayThe space race wasnt just about manned space flights and rockets sent into space to collect information, it was also about a race to gain power over communication worldwide, military reconnaissance, and advanced weather. On August 12, 1960 Echo 1 was designed and launched by Bell Laboratories and NASA, it was a 100 foot wide balloon, made of plastic and covered with aluminum. It was used only when it was in the right position over earth that it could be used to send radio messages to another location. In 1962 Telstar 1 was launched by Bell Telephone and ATT as a communications satellite. Telstar was a 3 foot-diameter ball, that had solar cells which provided power to the satellite. It was capable of picking up radio signals like television broadcasts and telephone calls. On earth receivers would pick up the radio signals, and would then amplify them to be heard or seen. In 1963 the first commercial based satellite communications company was for med the Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT) in 1963. When the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) was formed in 1964, COMSAT became the U.S. member. Based in Washington, D.C., INTELSAT is owned by more than 120 nations. Intelsat 1 was launched in 1965 provides either 2400 voice circuits or one two-way television channel between the U.S. and Europe. Also for military usage, the military has satellites, which they use for private communication and early weather detection. The idea of using outer space for military reconnaissance was discovered during the flight of Faith 7 launched on May 15, 1963 when Maj. Leroy Gordon Cooper said that while orbiting the earth he could see ships, roads, and smoking chimneys. When the Discoverer satellites were launched and sent over the Soviet Union it took high quality pictures of the country. In 1966 satellites were launched that could stay in orbit for weeks at a time and did have to be recovered to get the data collected, it was beamed back down to earth instead. The satellites had high-resolution cameras and infrared detectors. As technology and equipment has improved spying from space has become less expensive and recovered better information. Satellites are also being used to detect submerged submarines that would usually be unseen on earth. Satellites can be used for missile detection as well as military reconnaissance. In 1960 the Midas satellites were launched, these satellites were capable of detecting heat by using infrared detectors. In 1968 Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEW) satellites were launched by the U.S., to detect the launching of ballistic weapons so that the target of the missile can be given early warning. The first Antimissile satellites were launched in the early part of the 1960s. The RCA SAINT was built to inspect targets and if needed destroy them. Weather Satellites are used to give a accurate weather forecast for the up and coming days. On April 1, 1960, The U.S. and RCA launched the first weather satellite Tiros 1. Tiros 1 had two cameras, one for wide shots and the other for close up shots. When Tiros 1 would pass over the receiver the pictures would be sent down to the receiver on earth where the pictures could be analyzed to predict the weather. Later models of Tiros were launched that had better cameras and even infrared cameras too. Now because of weather satellites early detection of hurricanes and sever storms can give people time to prepare before the storm hits. Vietnam War; The MiddleThe middle of the Vietnam War began with the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964. After President John F. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, Lyndon B. Johnson was appointed president. Johnson felt that he had to take a forceful stand on Vietnam so that other Communist countries wouldnt think that the U.S. was weak. He thought to win the war the U.S. needed to scary the North Vietnam leaders with the possibility of a full-scale U.S. military attack. In 1964 Johnson ordered top-secret commando raids against bridges, railways, and coastal bases. He also ordered the U.S. Navy to conduct surveillance missions along the North Vietnams coast. He increased secret bombing of the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which was a path, which became a road that ran around the front line between North and South Vietnam. On August 2, 1964, North Vietnamese gunboats fired on the U.S. destroyer USS Maddox, which had left the Gulf of Tonkin which was international waters and entered No rth Vietnams territory. Johnson in turn ordered more ships into the gulf. Once again on August 4, 1964, the USS Turner Joy was fired uponed by North Vietnamese patrol boats. Johnson replied again by ordering the first air strikes on North Vietnamese territory. Then the U.S. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which gave war-making powers to Johnson until peace and security had returned to Vietnam. After the resolution was passed Johnson increased the bombing on North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese then launched their troops, the Peoples Army of Vietnam (PAVN) into South Vietnam along with the National Liberation Front (NLF) also launching attacks against South Vietnam. Between February 7th to February 10th of 1965 the NLF launched surprise attacks on the U.S. air bases at Pleiku, killing 8, wounding 126 and Qui Nhon, killing 23, wounding 21. Johnson retaliated by bombing Hanoi while Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin was visiting.The U.S. then declared a full-scale air war aga inst the North Vietnamese to try to weaken the PAVN and the NLF, the bombing didnt however do so. Johnson also asked that U.S. ground troops be sent into Vietnam to protect airbases saying that the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) didnt have the ability to defend the bases alone. On March 8, 1965, 3500 U.S. Marines were sent in, in April 56,000 more troops were sent in, then by the end of June there were more then 74,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam. The U.S. planned a strategy that would wear down the North Vietnamese by inflicting high death tolls. By the end of 1965, more then 80,000 U.S. troops were in Vietnam. The North Vietnamese meanwhile were building up bases in the Central Highlands in South Vietnam, wanting to gain a strategic position. Also sending their troops along the Ho Chi Minh Trail that went through Laos and Cambodia skipping over the border of North and South Vietnam. The NLF and PAVN had poor weaponry so they avoided open combat, instead they did hit and run tac tics, which they designed to wear down the support of the war in the United States. In October 1965 one of the largest battles of the Vietnam War was fought in the La Drang Valley, where the U.S. defeated the North Vietnamese forces. After the battle the NLF and PAVN changed their fight tactics. Instead they would fight when they choose too, and when they did they would hit hard and fast and then retreat quickly to avoid U.S. firepower. The U.S. after the battle increased its search-and-destroy missions just northeast of Saigon. In 1966 the U.S. bombed and destroyed more than 70% of the North Vietnams fuel reserves but still the North Vietnamese strength remained strong. By 1967 both the ground war and the air war had reached a stalemate, neither side was winning the war. In 1967 North Vietnam (PAVN) and the NLF decided the time had come to mount an all-out offensive aimed at inflicting serious losses on both the ARVN and U.S. forces. They planned the Tet Offensive with the hope that this would effect the thinking of the war in the United States. In December 1967 North Vietnamese troops attacked and surrounded a U.S. Marine base at Khe Sanh, and continually attacked it. The U.S. ordered that the base be held no matter what. To keep the North Vietnamese from taking the base about 50,000 U.S. troops were sent into the area, thus weakening positions further south. With so many American troops in one spot, the PAVN and NLF could attack anywhere else without much trouble. The main attack of the Tet Offensive then began on January 31, 1968, during the Tet holiday. Most ARVN troops had gone home on leave, and U.S. troops were on stand-down in many areas. Over 85,000 NLF soldiers simultaneously attacked almost every major city and capital across South Vietnam , defeating their defenders. The U.S. Embassy in Saigon was taken over by the NLF, and held for eight hours before U.S. forces could retake the complex. On March 16th U.S. troops in My Lai on a search and destroy mission kill more then 500 unarmed men, women and children. The U.S. Department of Defense estimated that a total of 45,000 North Vietnamese and NLF were killed during the Tet Offensive. After the Tet Offensive the majority of Americans wanted to end the war. In 1968 Lyndon Johnson announced that he had decided not to seek reelection, and Richard Nixon was elected president. By January 1969, 30,000 U.S. troops had been killed in the war. Nixon announced that he had a plan to end the war and in July of 1969, he withdrew 25,000 U.S. troops from Vietnam and lowered the draft rate. He also increased a CIA operation that assassinated NLF guerrillas, which resulted in 20,000 assassinations. He also increased funding for the ARVN and increased the bombing on Northern Vietnam. Nixo n said that the reason was to keep the Communist under attack while U.S. were withdrawn. In March of 1969, Nixon ordered the bombing of Cambodia in the intention to wipe out North Vietnamese and NLF bases along the South Vietnam border and to give the ARVN time to build up its forces. The bombing failed in its objectives, but as a result more then 100,000 innocent peasants were killed and 2 million were left homeless. Also continuing since 1964 the bombing of Laos continued targeting North Vietnamese forces that were traveling along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. It is Estimated that about 150,000 tons of bombs were dropped over Laos between 1964 to 1969, and about 750,000 people were killed. As a result of the middle of the Vietnam War 58,000 were killed, 300,000 were wounded, Vietnam veterans suffered from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, including anxiety and depression, and more then 130 billion dollars were spent directly on the war. The U.S. suffered raised taxes and serious inflation due to the high costs of the war. Hundreds of protests against the war were held, many of these protests ending in violence. Also the Vietnam War created a debate about the right of the U.S. to interfere in the affairs of other nations.