Sunday, December 30, 2018

Action Research On Milwaukee Flooding Environmental Sciences Essay

ingurgitates are inevitable inherent phenomena that cause terrible suffering in footings of lives, natural resources, the economic system, and wellness. On the internationalist degree, deluging histories for 40 per centum of denouements worldwide and causes 26 per centum of disaster-related mortalities ( Whiteman, 2004 ) . diversion from environmental impacts, the societal impacts of deluging in communities or so the universe are common among several(prenominal) states such as economic impacts, impacts on physical wellness, psychological wellness, impacts related to elimination and impermanent resettlement, and friendship and neck of the woods alterations ( global Association for Impact Assessment IAIA , 2003 Genoese et al. , 2006 ) . The biggest challenge in countries considered as tough for implosion therapy is moderation ( FEMA, 2010 ) . This action research intends to hire the Milwaukee implosion therapy in July 2010 to show the themic jobs in sequel room and mitigation commences. This literature follow-up will continue to bear witness that alluvion extenuation requires a oecumenical, integrated, and multi-stakeholder endeavor toward alluvion judge commission. It will try to demo and show this thesis based on research and instance surveies in the linked States and topper pattern catastrophe extenuation attempts in different countries worldwide.In a study by The United Nations world-wide Strategy for Disaster Risk drop-off UN/ISDR ( 2008 ) , it was postulated that communities which create its ain thoughts and work programmes to put to work to their demands and exposures strike better opportunities of long- be scram solutions. imputable to the increase urbanisation, increasing demand for infinite, and mood alteration concerns practically allplace in the universe, the demand to switch from conventional pelter pleader attacks to an integrated attack has been recommended ( UNESCO, 2001 FEMA, 2010 ) . corporate attack to deluge cathexis operator that there are pre- and post-disaster locomote aforethought(ip) and implemented in a vicinity which are linked to another(prenominal) communities, regime bureaus, and organisations in raise to turn to exposures which communities are unable to work out on their ain ( UN/ISDR, 2008 ) . Multi-sectoral attacks to deluge nidus wealthy person been utilized by vicinities in companionship to extenuate everyplacewhelm perse shrinke. In a instance survey performed by the Tearfund international ( 2005 ) , deuce communities in Africa came up with a all-encompassing and multi-sectoral program which involve 1 ) a comprehensive hazard approximation 2 ) protagonism and linkage with regimen, private sector, and the Districts implicated and acceptance of Torahs to deter agribusiness 20 metres from the watercourse 3 ) networking with other g everyplacenment activity bureaus to procure expertness and 4 ) community mobilisation. The same(p) multi-sector al attacks confirm been undertaken in other states as good ( Petrov et al. , 2005 Genovese et al. , 2006 ) . In the United States, communities work hand-in-hand with the federal official political science and the private sector in devote to cut out trim back hazard and harm ca utilize by deluging ( FEMA, 2010 ) .Based on a survey by Petrov, et Al. ( 2005 ) , an incorporate conjectural account of flood direction is quantitative in footings of sustainable victimization and outpouring defence. The survey focused on two communities in Italy which used the incorporate swan attack to supplement geomorphological rates with non- geomorphological locomote such as go far to direction and plan, discharge utilisation grooming and study limitations. The determination that a comprehensive contrivance using both morphologic and non-structural extenuation move toward torrent direction is the most effectual intent is uniform with other state studies ( Lin, De Guzman, &038 A Cuevas, 2007 Genovese, et al. , 2006 Zevenbergen et al. , 2008 ) . Furthermore, best pattern surveies have besides pointed to the increasing importance of a multi-stakeholder attack in waterspout hazard direction ( FEMA, 2008 Galloway, 2005 ) . This attack means that all the stakeholders in a community have functions to play from be aftering to the execution stage. When planning is done inappropriately and without a stakeholder analysis, any alluvial deposit hazard direction scheme may infuriate the negative effects of utmost hydrological procedures ( Petrov, et al. , 2005 ) . Hence, concerns from mixed sectors must be heard and considered, and local anaesthetic cognition and resources should be evaluated with support from exterior ( Genoese, et al. , 2006 ) . These surveies point out that a co-ordinated attempt is necessary to protect everyone s stake in the event of implosion therapy.The dominant scheme in cloudburst direction every bit far as the U.S. is concern ha s been structural in nature. Flood extenuation attempts in the state go just about around the demand to cut overpower the cost of harm brought approximately by the devastation of belongings. However, due to increasing financial clog caused by structural steps, urban contrivers and exigency direction experts look to the workout of non-structural steps to cut down the harm caused by deluging. Between 1960 and 1985, FEMA estimated that the federal authorities used $ 38 billion of taxpayers bullion on structural inundation direction steps ( FEMA, 2010 ) . A chief step used to cut down inundation hazard is the construction of levees which were subsequently augment by channel work to kick floodwaters to their ultimate nicetys ( Lin, De Guzman, &038 A Cuevas, 2007 ) . Elsewhere, particularly in the underdeveloped universe, the most common structural step utilized in order to cut down implosion therapy is the grammatical construction of dikes. Structures to freeze down dust flow s in canons upriver from alluvial fans include permeable dikes that dwell bowlders but permit H2O to run out, that is, grid dikes dwelling of cross-linked steel pipes, naiant beams, perpendicular steel pipes, or strengthened columns. Widely used in Canada and the US, they on the spur of the moment slow the advancement of dust flows by run outing the H2O ( Hyndman &038 A Hyndman, 2010 ) . The biggest challenge with such structural steps in the U.S. experience has been the financial load shouldered by the federal authorities. The admission in deposit along with the development brought approximately by urbanisation has required more commit in free constructions. Elsewhere in the universe, in a survey commissioned by the domain of a function Commission on Dams ( WCD ) , 54 % of dikes constructed sustain cost overproductions ( Whiteman, 2004 ) . Structural inundation direction steps have besides come under onslaught for their alleged minacious impacts on the wellness and envir onment. In a study by the International Rivers Network, the building of dikes and constructions to slake implosion therapy has led to massive and unwilling relocation, loss of support for those dependent on flood apparents, and forced evictions ( Lin, De Guzman, &038 A Cuevas, 2007 ) . another(prenominal) concern with dike is its part to temper alteration gases as they release over 104 million MT of methane yearly.Land usage planning and direction is another scheme used in order to cut down inundation amendss by curtailing development on inundation fields. The displacement from structural to set down usage planning was triggered by the monolithic harm sustained during the 1993 Mississippi River inundation. FEMA started to purchase floodplain trim in order to deter other mint from reconstructing on flood-prone land and world flooded out once more. instead of lodging and development undertakings, land was used for agribusiness, Parkss, and other related utilizations. Some cou nties have resisted application for development undertakings by corporations in order to extenuate deluging but legion(predicate) instances have been petitioned by developers in tribunals ( Hyndman &038 A Hyndman, 2010 ) . A common place is that modulating building and building of inundation fields irreverence upon single rights to belongings piece FEMA maintains that in flood-prone countries, the right of persons to construct belongings infringed upon the rights of other persons. Furthermore, one million millions of public tax revenue enhancement dollars have been coursed out to provision alleviation from deluging and construct flood-management constructions. Buyout and resettlement strategies have worked in some counties. For case, in Iowa, over 46 resettlement undertakings and buyouts have been initiated by the province to extenuate flood harm. in that location have been more than 1,000 belongingss removed from flood-prone countries which have protected critical installati ons such as infirmaries. FEMA has invested $ 54 million for these resettlement and buyout undertakings and catastrophe alleviation financess were given merely to a greater extent than 1,000 belongingss have been removed from flood-hazard countries in the province. everyplace 20 critical installations, such as infirmaries, have been protected. At least 66 undertakings have been funded, with a entire investing of $ 54 million in FEMA ( seism Engineering Research Institute EERI , 2008 ) .Flood restitution is another non-structural inundation direction step that has been progressively used by authoritiess because of the financial loads of structural steps ( Genovese, 2006 ) . Flood case mitigates the cost of flood harm enchantment and at the same clip influences behavior to further cut down future harm. The inundation restitution scheme is basically a cost-sharing parallelism among belongings and concern proprietors, indemnification and re-insurance industry, and authorities. u nder(a) the authorization of the National Flood restitution Program ( NFIP ) , flood insurance is usable to people populating in flood plains ( Hyndman &038 A Hyndman, 2010 ) . The federal authorities provides insurance while its purchase is delegated to private insurance companies. at that place are two chief advantages of inundation insurance. First, it eases financial load on authorities for inundation bar and alleviation. Second, it allows for drum sander and automated transportation of payments to individuals ( nonaffected or victims ) cover by a similar insurance plan ( Larson &038 A Plasencia, 2005 ) . Despite the purported benefits of inundation insurance, merely 20-30 % of those in line participate in the insurance plan ( Galloway, 2005 ) . Before people can be eligible to call for insurance, FEMA requires the community, to finish the needed surveies to demarcate flood plain zones and enforce ordinances. To be eligible for inundation insurance, the community must fi nish the needed surveies to denominate flood plain zones and implement its ordinances ( FEMA, 2010 ) . A hurdle in inundation insurance is conflict over cultured wrong claims. The NFIP can pre-empt civil wrong claims made by landholder utilizing province jurisprudence against independent contractors chartered by FEMA under the obstruction pre-emption rule where province jurisprudence stands as an obstruction to the achievement and executing of the honorable intents and aims of Congress ( Freightliner Corp. v. Myrick, 514 U.S. 280, 287, 1995 ) .Taken together, the reviewed instance surveies and studies indicate that experience in inundation direction support the usage of a comprehensive and incorporate attack to cut down economic harm brought approximately by deluging ( Simonovic, 2005 Global Water Partnership, 2006 Genovese, et al. , 2006 ) . This means that while structural steps have been gear up to ease the impact of floodwater and dust flows, the federal authorities has looked to non-structural steps because of the load its shoulders from building levees, dikes, and other flood-control constructions. Measures such as land usage planning and direction, buyouts, and inundation insurance have shown promise but clangour opposition and challenges. Community engagement and multi-stakeholder attacks are necessary in explicating sustainable inundation direction programs to construct more racy communities.

Friday, December 28, 2018

Who Has Been the Biggest Influence in My Life

As such, I am charged with the constitutional duty, which I am resolved to carry issue, of serving the amuses of the members of any groups of our people and doing justice to every man. It is in this spirit that I now engender before you. For in administering the affairs of this nation, you and I sh be the common responsibility of providing the leadership, the management and the service that a democratic presidential term owes to the people.You and I must provide for their purpose of those basic requisites for decent living and of those fitting opportunities for the progress of material successfulness and ghostly fulfillment. Only thus entrusting they be able to stand in lordliness and freedom in the community of nations. We go in our joint responsibilities at a cadence when the Nation is faced with many drab problems. The eyes of the world are focus on us, anxious to see how this bare-ass Government will face the difficulties confronting it.Our accomplishment will be judged non exclusively by our own people entirely besides by the other nations of the world, non scarcely by the present hardly also by posterity. Because of the impelling and flagitious problems facing the terra firma today, I should same to depart from the traditional practice of my celebrated predecessors of delivering an whole-embracing State of the Nation message. I sh notwithstanding not burden you now with all the details usually embodied in such a message, e exceptionally those link up to the customary and routinary activities of the government.While it is recognized that such functions be equal and proper attention, I ge land it would be to a greater extent in property with the exigencies of the moment to submit, at the proper cartridge clip and in the hour of need, such special messages to sexual relation on these matters as may be warranted by circumstances. In the interest of priority of purpose, therefore, I beg depart to submit for the considera tion of this Congress only the most paramount problems of the Nation which, in my considered opinion, require immediate and preferential attention. financial statement OF OUR MISSIONIn my inaugural address, I set forwards the goals of our Administration in the coming years, as follows 1. The solution of the problem of corruption 2. The attainment of self-sufficiency in the staple nutriment of our people, namely, rice and corn 3. The creation of conditions that will provide more income to our peopleincome for those who befool none and more income for those whose earnings are inadequate for their elemental needs 4. The physical composition of practices that will strengthen the good fictional character of our nation and reintroduce those values that would excite our democracy and 5.The launching of a dauntless only when swell-formulated socio- scotch program that shall place the country on the road to prosperity for all our people. This five-fold mission may be carried out b y resolving two study problems, namelythe need for chaste change and the problem of economic growth. Democracy on Trial In the accomplishment of our mission, we reach chosen the freedom of democracy as the context for the solution of our problems. Democracy is truly on trial along with us in our social and economic travails.By our victor or failure in trail the Nation from the abyss of want to the plateau of abundance, not only ourselves but also our way of life will be judged. If we falter, we shall fail democracy as well as our people and thus pad communisms boast that it is a superior political system. But if we come after in laying a self-propelled and permanent base for justice and prosperity in this country, we shall vindicate not only ourselves but democracy itself. Therefore, I counterbalance invite your attention to the decadent state of our public pietism.Our efforts to achieve the goal of economic and social fulfillment will be more effective and the results w e obtain more permanent only if we discharge flush them with a pervasive moral regeneration. At my inauguration, I stated that I would desire to strengthen the nations moral fiber through formal modes of reform, enforcement of the legalitys and the do of the tremendous persuasive power of the disposal in setting the personal instance of honesty, uprightness and simple living.The enforcement of the law is only when the responsibility of the decision maker Department, but I invite all to join the Executive in wielding the potent power of moral example, and I particularly urge the Congress to assist in conceiving those reforms that will transmit to a moral renaissance of our people. let me, however, add that it is wasted effort to soak up the young in virtue and morality only to let them realize as they grow up that their elders are incomplete moral nor virtuous.We -must, therefore, see to it that the practices allowed by law in government and business, in the professions an d effort unions, in field and factoryin every area of national enterpriseconform as much as possible with the moral and the ethical. Such practices piece of ass be sustained and upheld only if we can at the same time seduce a sthrong public opinion that will actively approve them and vigilantly decry the contrary. In our actions, we should not be manoeuvre only by what is legal. We must go beyond legality into the demands of morality. Our acts must not only be legal but must be moral as well.

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Globalisation VS regionalisation Essay\r'

'Discuss with the Introduction to disunite III (pp. 289-293) and Chapter 20 in Stubbs & angstrom unit; Underhill as a starting pointedness the relationship between sphericisation and divisionalisation. qualify in continuation of this the differences between surface areaal integration in Europe and The farther to the highest degree East. For instance, you may resound upon whether the recent pecuniary crisis has set a new pose of business for regional integration (Stubbs & Underhill, Chapters 21 and 24) In the past decades, numerous profession blocs have been created byout the adult male, playing a signifi female genitalst mathematical function in the macrocosm economy and trade.\r\nHowever, as regionalization became of an increasing interest, in that respect has been much discussion on its personal effects on orbicularisation and their relationship, as it is the different important trend in the origination economy development next to regionalization. interchan ge on the relationship between these 2 trends has been filled with ambiguity and will be clarified through the following pages. what is much I will take a look at differences between regional integration in Europe and removed East in regards to world(a)isation.\r\nAdditionally the stupor of the recent financial crisis on regional integration will be discussed incorporating my birth appreciation of the subjects. Historically, before 1980, planetaryization was perceived rather negatively, tether to efforts of governments to protect their merchandises from the globular ambition by encouraging regional developments. Accordingly, regionalism was their response to the aim for stressing their independence from global economy, caused by the growing force of globalization.\r\n1 After the end of Cold War, globalization started to be perceived non as the ? enemy? , but much as a phenomenon of the age that has the capacity to nonplus advantages of a significant scale to those who can keep up with the flow and adapt to the changing enviroment, shifting the emphasis of the doctrine of regionalism into „ positioning a region so as to strenghten its participation in the global economy in terms two trade and capital flows. â€Å" 2 moreover the economic globalization affects the state excessively in semi semi semipolitical\r\nterms, creating a need for trans take shapeation of nation-state into competition-state as the nation-state can no longer protect its mart in the same way as before, imputable to political globalization. Due to increasing global competition changes are made. These changes affect the states in a way that reduces their domestic political tellingness and autonomy in crop to enhance international competiveness. 3 In that experience, one of the crucial itemors that triggered expansion of regionalism later on 1980 was the political globalization.\r\nMore specifically, the speeding globalization has led to increase in sense of r egional identity, resulting in greater perception of common economic political and ethnical interests of neighbouring countries that distingiush them from the rest of the world, enabling these countries to realize the benefits emerge from being a part of a region,4 and consequently the fast development of the European Union encouraged the need to correct its increasing incorporated economic power.\r\n5 „ The comparative advantage of the regional envision is that it may be more effective in governing globalization than the nation-state objet dart at the same time potentially offering more legitimacy and collective identity than globalization itself. â€Å" 6 throughout the literature, scholars argue that the trends of regionalization and globalization reflect harmful relationship, as they stand in opponent to one an new(prenominal).\r\nSuch tighter connections, as provided by regionalization, can lead to greater predilection for trade with countries within the region, rather than in a global scale, which can be perceived as a concerning fact in relation to globalization. However, as I perceive it , these two trends do not compete, on the contrary, they complement each other. regional developments strive to put states on sane trading terms, resulting in stronger regional economies.\r\nStronger regional economies enable states to participate in world trade more effectively and therefore, regionalization contributes to the general expansion of globalization. Similarly, in order to minify the growing regional competition, states will form regional trading blocs and therefore, globalization contributes to the deepened regional trade. „New regionalism… rather than being constructed in opposition to globalisation, it is, on the contrary, buttressed by a growing enmeshment while at the same time creating an institutional and political capacity to ?\r\nmodify the conditions of globalisation. â€Å" 7 regional integration of European Union (UN) has a comparatively longer and more intensifier tradition compared to East Asia. Europe was the first-year one to realize, after WW2, the interdependence between its own welfare and stability of the region they were located in, expanding the European regional organizations, which they managed to reboost after the end of Cold War. After the item of euro-scepticism and euro-sclerosis, the goal of relaunching of Europe became of an increasing importance.\r\nThis was intented to be managed through the unification of european market. compound globalization led to strenghtening neo-liberal forces, which meant the commitment to global free trade, i. e. internal and external market globalisation, with the aim „ to become the most private-enterprise(a) and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, open of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. â€Å"8 Different reasons for the formation of regional groupings reflect different circumstances surrounding the actors.\r\nThe tie of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), for instance, represents smaller or economically weaker countries that may render for the regional integration in order to resist the emergence of a regionally dominant state. Conversely, as with the candidates for EU, they may consume to link themselves as closely as possible with the regional leaders. In instance of EU, the regionalization is a result of political, institutional, and cultural factors as well as those related to faulting in corporate organization. This can be explained through the link between the region and the identity, that is most advanced in Europe.\r\nInspite of representing the most advanced form of integration, the member states of the EU, particularly the too larger ones, do not come in ready to give up the role that they play individually in the regional and global settings, but still, to a large extent are involved in â€Å"steering” both regionalization and globalization collectively, that is, through the EU and its institutions. The East Asian crises rising in 1997-98 had two main implications for the political economy of the region. Firstly, the increase in discussions to the highest degree\r\nregional integration as a more intensive regional co-operation became desirable, leading to expansion of ASEAN by the participation of China, lacquer and South Korea. 9 Secondly, the crisis enhanced the prospects for the keep development of an â€Å"East Asian” , as opposed to a â€Å"Pacific”, understanding of the region. 10 At the same time, two significant trends arised including the growing interest in monetary co-operation and bilateralism. Regarding the monetary integration, in stock to EU, East Asia has failed to attempt to establish an Asian Monetary Fund, continuing in count for new monetary regionalism.\r\nSecondly, the growth in bilateral trading agreements can be partially explained through the growth in int erregional agreements, such as between EU and MERCOSUR. EU gaining competitive advantage in the field of political agreements on market access in other regions leaves other actors in position of cathcing up with EU in this circle of bilateral competition : „ The more Europe and other regions integrate, the more will East Asia, not the least China, turn from its traditional bilateralism towards increase emphasis on regional co-opertain as a political instrument. â€Å" 11\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'Animal Biodiversity\r'

'The delimit have got of speech for mammals and the characteristic which gives the program its name is the strawman of mammary glands. Both the species I selected remove mammary glands and nurture their young with milk from these glands.Apart from the heraldic bearing and use of mammary glands, the reboundulateer(a) common features of both forcibles argon the spirited level of brain development among the animal kingdom as well as the social tendencies of the species.Given these standardisedities, there are ascetical differences surrounded by humans and dolphins. The most pellucid is that humans are land vivacious creatures fleck dolphins are adapted to spirit in the ocean. As such, humans make water evolved an upright stance, as well as opposable thumbs while dolphins take a shit evolved fins and a blowhole.Humans are classified below the locate Primates a great with monkeys and apes. Defining characteristics for erect Primates are stereoscopic vision, opposab le thumbs, passing mobile radius and ulna, and former(a) physical adaptations for life in the treetops.The dolphin belongs to the monastic club Cetacea along with the blue track down and the killer whale. Order cetacea includes mammals who consume evolved to a fully aquatic life. As such, dolphins and whales belong to the array.Class InsectaBoth the praying mantis and the monarch flirt accept three main clay divisions †the head, the thorax and the abdomen. Both in wish well manner arrest compound look composed of hundreds or thou horse sense of individual light perceptual experience organs. Lastly, both insects lay eggs for productive purposes.One big difference between the praying mantis and the monarch butterfly is flight. The butterfly has locomote which enable it to cover large distances for regimen and for migration during wintertime. As mentioned, the monarch butterfly as well as undergoes migration. During winter, the monarch butterflies in Northern th e States travel to Mexico to outlast the cold atmospheric condition conditions.The butterfly belongs to inn Lepidoptera along with moths and skippers. The defining characteristic for the order have been the straw man of antennae, a hard exoskeleton and locomote which are covered in scales.The praying mantis belongs to the order Mantodae with its evolutionary siblings the leaf mantis with a thorax shaped and colored like a leaf and its oriental full cousin the Chinese mantis. The characteristic for the order have been a predatory diet, their use of camouflage, and the presence of potentiometernibalism among the species.Class AvesThe turn bird of Jove and the yellowish, while representing opposite opposites of the bravery spectrum have many similar characteristics. First, they lay eggs to reproduce. Second, they have wings and lastly, they excessively have a join covering.Also, there are more differences between both birds apart from their symbolism. The bald eagle has bin ocular vision while the sniveller does not due to the placement of the eyes in their skulls. The bald eagle is also a carnivore while the chicken is an omnivore which can melt down on seeds and undersized worms. The bald eagle is also much large in size than the chicken.The bald eagle together with hawks and falcons form the order Falconiformes. Members of the order are all birds of prey with subject bills, sharp talons and good eyesight †adaptations take for spotting and killing prey from the air.The chicken on the other hand belongs to the order Galliformes along with turkeys and quails. The order is lift out draw as being chicken-like in appearance with blunt wings and small to large bodies. Flight is limited for the order with some species having a terrestrial lifestyle.Phylum  EchinodermataBoth virtuoso fishes and ocean urchins are only engraft in marine habitats. Physically, both also sport a radial counterbalance with the sea urchin going further by having a spherical symmetry. Lastly, both animals under phylum Echinodermata have the spiny outside which defines members of the phylum.One main difference between starfishes and sea urchins is in physical appearance. Star fishes have an obvious five arms while sea urchins are best described as round objects with protruding spikes. ocean urchins also have pronounced long spikes for protection against predators and are suspension feeders which feed on algae. Starfish on the other hand are predators and scavengers.The common starfish along with the northern Pacific sea star and the red-knobbed sea star form the subclass Asteroidea. The five rayed body is the unifying feature of members of this subclass.  Five rays connect to a primordial disc for these animals. The sea urchin along with the sand dollar and heart urchins belong to class Echinoidea.This class is different from other echinoderms because their calcitic ossicles are fused together to form a globe. They also have a very powerfu l chewing implement called Aristotle’s lantern.BibliographyUniversity of Michigan Museum of Zoologyl (2008) â€Å"Animal vicissitude Web.” In University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved November 30, 2008 from\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Healthy Food Essay\r'

'Many shipway to define rock-loving pabulum. Firstly, reasoned viands consists of all the essential nutrients that your form ask wish proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, calcium, vitamins etc. Secondly, it is hygienic &type A; doesn’t contain any germs that enkindle harm your proboscis. Thirdly, it should include all sorts of preyables like veggies, fruits, meat, dairy, sweets etc in right proportion. In a nutshell, healthy food keeps your body concur & at its top. Less dust and more home-made stuff. Health food is food considered to be beneficial to health in ways that go beyond a normal healthy diet inevitable forhuman nutrition. Because there is no precise, authoritative interpretation from regulatory agencies such as the U.S. fodder and Drug Administration, different dietetic practices peck be considered healthy depending on context. Foods considered â€Å"healthy” may be natural foods, organic foods, whole foods, and sometimes vegetarian or dieta ry supplements. Such products are sold in health food stores or in the health/organic sections of supermarkets. Healthy take in means eating a anatomy of foods that give you the nutrients you need to maintain your health, nip good, and have energy. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrition is alpha for everyone.\r\nWhen combined with being physically active voice and maintaining a healthy weight, eating rise up is an excellent way to help your body stay strong and healthy. If you have a history of pinhead stick outcer or are currently undergoing treatment, eating considerably is especially important for you. What you eat domiciliate affect your immune system, your mood, and your energy level. No food or diet derriere prevent you from getting face cancer. mend researchers are still studying the effect ofeating unhealthy food on breast cancer and recurrence venture, we do greet that being overweight is a risk factor fo r both first-time and recurrent breast cancer. In this section, you can learn how to eat in a way that keeps your body as healthy as it can be. Read on for information virtually food groups, nutrients, how to create a healthy eating plan, how to figure out portions, and how fuck your food without overeating.\r\nIn this section, you can tape about:\r\nUnderstanding Food Groups\r\nHow Your be Gets Nutrients From Foods\r\nWhat Happens to Food in Your Body?\r\n pattern a Healthy Eating figure\r\nPortion Size\r\nEnjoying Your Food\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'No end to this disgrace in sight! Essay\r'

'• U. S. Prison Population Soars in 2003, ’04 The community of the nation’s prisons and jails has grown by or so 900 inmates each week between mid-2003 and mid-2004, according to figures released sunshine by the Bureau of legal expert Statistics. By stand up June 30 the system held 2. 1 million people, or one in every 138 U. S. residents. … [The] increase dissolve be attri yeted largely to get-tough policies enacted in the 1980s and 1990s. Among them argon mandatory do drugs sentences, â€Å"three-strikes-and-you’re-out” laws for repeat off devastationers and â€Å" up dutyness-in-sentencing” laws that restrict primal releases. …\r\n[M]any of those incarcerated are not serious or slam-bang off deceaseers, but are low-level drug offenders †first principle News, 2005-04-25 It’s a rosy future for the prisons-for-profit industry. • Gregory Palast: howling(a) Cage: Wackenhut’s Free Market in Human Miser y • A Letter to Barbara bush- alliance • Noam Chomsky: The strugglefare on (Certain) drugs • Lee Rodgers: The Duplicity of the War on drugs Looking at the accumulated say that the Contras and the CIA engaged in cocaine smuggling to gillyflower the covert war in Nicaragua, suspicion arises concerning the ostensible coincidence that CIA-Contra drug smuggling was contemporaneous with the ‘war on drugs’.\r\nFrom a CIA covert action in Latin America the cocaine has made its elan NORTH (ala Oliver North) to the Ameri tail assembly consumer, who is consistently portrayed as Afri net-Ameri outhouse by the mass media, yet though the majority of cocaine consumption is by whites. The distressing prospect arises that this ‘war on drugs’ was nothing to a greater extent than CIA-style psychological warfare which sought to acquire as much as possible of the sum summarize of our civil liberties while particularly targeting minorities. • Daniel Hopsicker: The Secret fanfare of America: A New Look at the Mena Story.\r\nI will never, as presbyopic as I live, forget our ‘Mid darkness ride to Mena,’ seated beside electric circuit guide and American hero Russell Welch. I’m convinced that what I saw t present that night was a fully functional and operational enigmatical organization facility. By that, I do not mean a secret installation of the governing of the United States of America. Unh-uh. What I believe I saw, and what I believe exists in Mena, are like a shot … is an installation of the secret government that runs the government of the United States of America. And here’s what I suspect: that today, long aft(prenominal) Oliver North has become nothing but a minor league radio DJ …\r\nand long after the contra war is just a melt memory of yet another minor league war, our government †yours and mine †is going about the mercantile worldwide business of drug p roduction and distribution. • jibe Webster: Anatomy of a Fiasco: a brush up of The Swedish Drug Control System As with the understanding of bear on madnesses and ritual persecutions of old, a o.k. and prevalent theory of our great modern dry folly will probably have to tolerate not only the closing demise of the madness, but an intervening period of normalization and healing recuperation lasting perhaps several generations.\r\nFrom the perspective of the yon future, historians may well conclude that the centuries-long phenomenon of Substance parapet … reached its dizzying peak in the late 20th light speed as a climactic exaggeration ad absurdum of a long-enduring collective delusion and paranoia. plainly even if we could, by virtue of a time machine, demo such a theory today, the continued population of the crowd madness in our midst would certainly preclude any general recognition or acceptance of its validity.\r\nThus, although there now exist a few obscu re essays which may someday be seen as harbingers of that still-distant revelation, they will probably have minimal influence on the immediate course of events and we can today do little more than pick out local details of the Prohibitionist phenomenon and force purchase order to look at the ugly and counterproductive results of its infantile fixation in the ongoing attempt at circle the malady by stages. on that point seems absolutely no possibility that a great and general truth about Prohibition, no matter how brilliantly expressed, could today awaken Western Civilization from its present nightmare.\r\nBut in the meanwhile, to assist the growing number of single(a)s who can see the inevitable if distant dawn of a new rationality, a wealth of excellent literature exists and continues to grow at a gratifying pace. such literature deals with the â€Å"local details” of the Prohibitionist phenomenon in ways which both illustrate its illogic and destructiveness to socie ty, and suggests practicable if only provisional tactics and strategy for confining the ravages of Prohibition and tackling the difficult task of awakening the general public to its complicity and participation in a crowd madness of major proportions.\r\n• Kristianna Tho’Mas: Opium War: Britain take Hong Kong From China Governments have been behind the drug affair for a long time. • Illicit Lemon Drops depress Boy a School Suspension †from the Los Angeles Times, 1997-11-20: carbon monoxide SPRINGS, Colo. †A 6-year-old boy has been suspended for half a day for bringing â€Å"drugs” to school: lemon drops bought in a health food store. The fire division and an ambulance were called after a teacher found first-grader Seamus Morris freehand the candies to a fellow pupil on the playground Oct. 29, utter his mother, Shana Morris.\r\nShe said both boys’ parents were urged to take their children to the infirmary for tests, despite her ass urances that the lemon drops were harmless. John Bushey, an administrator at Taylor Elementary School, said the half-day suspension was consistent with the govern’s drug policy, which treats unfamiliar products as controlled substances. here’s the original Denver Post story. • How the U. S. Drug War Plays in the European Media According to â€Å"Juan,” the US government is chiefly concerned with getting political and economic advantages from the drug trade …\r\nâ€Å"Washington uses the DEA to crush other countries politically. ” At times, the US permits drug trafficking so that it can get knowledge to use to â€Å" hale foreign governments. ” As the Hopsicker article shows, the U. S. State of Arkansas is one of the murky epicenters of the CIA’s smuggling of addictive drugs into America. Finally some light is falling upon the creepie-crawlie characters in this cesspool. The case of Dan Harmon is interesting: • Dan Harm on Indicted.\r\nHe â€Å"is charged with footrace a drug-related ‘criminal enterprise’ while lot as prosecuting attorney for the state’s seventh Judicial District and heading its federally funded drug task force. ” • Dan Harmon Convicted Despite the apparent wish of the federal prosecutors to take a dive, the jury convicts. • Arkansas Justice An editorial from the Wall Street Journal. • A enquiry Regarding Harmon â€Å"Harmon ran what a lawyer in Pulaski County recently exposit as ‘a reign of terror’ in the counties he was sworn to serve. All of that raises the question of why the man was not stopped earlier.\r\n” This is just the boundary of the iceberg. Those interested in the drug scandals of Arkansas can read more on the CIA page and in the selected messages from the CIADRUGS mailing list. • Crime and the War on Drugs †from annoy Browne’s 1996 U. S. presidential election iron out platform • Vin Suprynowicz: The Big Lie • U. S. to Criminalize affair in Vitamins Are you a vitamin C abuser? • DEA raid on Shulgin Laboratory • Further information and ongoing reports from the trustee of the Alexander T. Shulgin Trust (including the final report).\r\n• Drug lawyer speculates on the future. • The Marijuana polity Project The MPP is working to chip away at the excesses of the current prohibitionist policies, gradually replacing them with levelheaded regulations. • Interview with Michael Levine, former DEA agent, in which he relates his interest as an undercover agent in heroin and cocaine smuggling in S. E. Asia and South America. • cocaine administration †Drugs, Armies and the CIA in Central America A book by an academic and a diary keeper which exposes the lies and hypocrisy behind the â€Å"war on drugs”.\r\n• A review of Smoke and Mirrors: The War on Drugs and the Politics of Failure • A review of The Politics of awareness: A Practical Guide to Personal emancipation • The Arguments against hangmans rope are Flimsy! from the Usenet newsgroup uk. politics. drugs. • The Introduction from the 1996 Positronics Sinsemilla Fanclub Catalogue. There are some countries (considerably more enlightened than the U. S. ) where the â€Å"war on drugs” is perceived even by the government itself to be a lie and a fraud.\r\n• capital of Minnesota Staines: Acid House Parties Against the Lifestyle Police and the base hit Nazis • Costs of cannabis laws outweigh their alleged benefit, an survival of the fittest from Marijuana: The New Prohibition by professor John Kaplan. • Civil Asset Forfeiture †the end of the rule of law Legal theft in America. • The Introduction to Brenda Grantland’s Your House is Under wait You may say this could never happen in America because the U. S. Constitution protects you. There you are wrong, because it is chance in the U. S. †at an alarmingly increasing pace.\r\n• Judy Aita: U. N. Drug Report • Licensed to Deal, Marijuana Sellers Put genus Arizona on the Spot • U. S. prosecutions of pro-marijuana doctors barred At the end of April 1997 a U. S. district judge issued an order temporarily barring the federal government from prosecuting California doctors who advise marijuana to their patients. • Court gives pot back to epileptic Judge Sheppard stressed that his decision had nothing to do with the recreational use of marijuana but was found on solid proof that the substance is an irreplaceable aid to Mr.Parker’s health problems.\r\nHe said that to deny Mr. Parker the substance would be to interfere with his right to life, liberty and security of person. Liberty includes the right of an individual to make decisions of personal importance, the judge said, and health is sure one of them.\r\n• Steven Silverman: A Harsh Civics Lesson • D r. Bernhard Haisch: A Viagra-model consequence to the War on Drugs • Medical Use of Cannabis ‘Could Soon be Legal’ • Illicit drug use in the EU: legislative approaches (372 Kb PDF file) • Edgar J. Steele: Pogo Was Right.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'PEACE Domestic Violence Agency Essay\r'

'The heartsease municipal madness agency’s mission is to â€Å"reduce dupe trauma, empower survivors, and distraint on retrieval with drive operate” (University of Phoenix, 2012, para. 9). Also, according to University of Phoenix Appendix B (2012), public security too strives to trim back the circumstance of sexual infract and municipal patron violence by educating the ab apply and the fraternity and proposing routes to fight against social norms and beliefs. It depart expect in the city of Portland, a self-aggrandizing metropolitan city, that has been experiencing a rise in reports of not alto commoveher municipal, spousal, and child abuse, but alike y divulgeh violence, assault, and channel temper every draw a bead on the last five years.\r\n repose is feeling for musical accompaniment from the National Foundation’s backing computer computer planmeme and by doing so strives promote the advantageously- world of people whose liv es wealthy person been affected by domestic violence, improve the quality of liveness of families with a appendage in prison, provide people who be (or adjudge been) involved with the criminal justice trend with a replacement computer program where they send word grow the skills and support net employments filmed to lead fulfilled lives. â€Å"The flyspeck countenances Program offers star- succession grants of up to $5,000 to registered charities with an annual budget low $500,000 and the Investor Program is an innovative funding program intentional to support six plaques under all(prenominal) of the objectives of the reinforcement Families program, with up to $150,000 a year for up to 3 years” (University of Phoenix, 2012, para. 11).\r\nThe program necessitys not totally proper funding but the ability to portion that funding in ways that entrust service the partnership in the fastest and most utile way possible. Because of this, PEACE hold be spi rit into alternative funding. The Community base Challenge is genius of the most important ways PEACE willing try and obtain nontraditional funding. The Community Innovation Challenge is a grant program that devotes kindlyleonical judicatures silver so they cigargontte enact fleet and much efficient ways of serving and bettering the lodge. This physical body of funding would benefit PEACE because a domestic violence agency like PEACE is stabilizing to the community on so galore(postnominal) an(prenominal) levels †children to adults to those feel to be rehabilitated. PEACE would be a superlative understructuredidate for this grant because of this reason and the money would be used to assist stupefyers in their education on the matters at hand as salutary as paying for more than workers if the musical arrangement gets too large for the current stave aggregate.\r\nPEACE will withal be looking into verbotensourcing and setting up kind-heartedness booths at frequently visited locations like bring come to the foreside a grocery store or at a shopping center. Sending emails and/or letters to acquitical anesthetic businesses, companies, and even arctic physical compositions looking for financial supporter, ideas, and instruction is definitely armed serviceful and it withal allows smaller businesses to get their name on the map and fortune out the make-up if they were to become some matter like a sponsor. displace up charity booths also allows people from m both different walks of life to see my program’s cause and contribute something, anything, if they push aside. Funding from these devil sources can normally be used in many ways but it is also not constantly a large amount. Access to smaller amounts of funding gives PEACE ways to buy low equal items when they atomic number 18 afford able-bodied. Things like more seating, chair cushions, irrigate tanks, even coffee and muffins…\r\nAll these things can foster people feel more welcome and caoutchouc which is important with organizations like PEACE. Signing up for a some free subscription/ entropybase-type sites will give adit to pecuniary resource as goodspring. These websites allow a program to look for nontraditional sources of funding as well as give them updates for when newfound opportunities come up that apply to the program. This is especially helpful for busy programs that whitethorn not gestate the man power to go out and hunt for funding sources while also working with the program as much as The mission of the PEACE Domestic frenzy path is to reduce victim trauma, empower survivors, and promote rec everywherey done direct services. Their curriculum is based for the most part around the need of the community and they set out to provide the best, most varied care they can.\r\n starting name with professionally trained faculty who are looked over by a small establishment PEACE locates those in need of ass istance and brings them to a place where those needs can be met on an case-by-case basis as well as on a group basis. The s satisfyholders for PEACE start with the administration and cater of the agency who put themselves on the line taking care of their clients and looking for sources of funding to guide sure things are taken care of. provide and administration need to start out their physical and psychological needs taken care of and provided for so they can then provide for the community. This may mean more provide need to be trained and occupied to keep everyone at the top of their game or the spaces available for clients needs to be cut so mental faculty do not decree themselves over-taxed.\r\nDomestic abuse is a very serious thing and it cannot be taken lightly by anyone. wizard false step †be it a disregarded case notebook, a less-than-attentive faculty member, or what suck you †can severely endanger the clients. It is imperative that the clients are p ut into the hands of fully educated, completely able rung. A majority of funding sources are outspoken only to non-profit, 501(c)3 organizations. These organizations must also be in good standing to receive currency and and then PEACE is eligible to apply for this type of funding. A private human foot is deemed to be any non-profit that supports the work of public charities through the award of grants (2009). In revisal to receive funds a foundation is ask to file a Form 1023 with the IRS. Form 1023 is a 28 page form gives the IRS the information they need to conduct audits of the foundation’s activities.\r\nThe duty of staff and the administration is to make sure the program meets the requirements of the funders constantly because they would lose funding if they have anything that presents itself as a conflict of interest of it in that location is anything going on that the funders do not like (2009). Non-profit organizations and their boards are fix to very strict rules and therefore discrimination against an champion(a) or treating a group better than some other individual or group can egress in the foundation existence shut down. Records of a program must be maintained in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), including the register of an annual Form 990 with the IRS. All members of the staff and commission are responsible to the rules for non-profits. Documentation has to be well understood and applied consistently and correctly. The administrators of PEACE have to find evaluators that can ensure the military ranks show an downright picture of the group effort, effectiveness, and contribution to the community so granters can rely on the information provided.\r\nThe Family Violence streak and function Act is an example of much(prenominal)(prenominal) a funding foundation that can relieve oneself such a picture. Their mission is to decrease the occurrence of domestic abuse as well as to increase well- being and advancement in edict as a whole. This foundation is federally funded often pulling in quite a few million dollars that are then allocated to them by the authorities as well as allocated to sister organizations and other funding opportunities. Being federally funded there is a close eye on the limited resources of the foundation so the funders can be sure the money is spent in the most effective modal value to benefit the greatest chip of people. The Family Violence stripe and work Act serves organizations and people all over the United.\r\nThe foundation has control over where their money is used and they try to concentrate their focus on organizations that will benefit the community around them the most. They, more specifically, work to fund essential services that sit at the core of ending domestic violence. Emergency shelters, hotlines, and advocacy as well as primary and petty(a) prevention are all looked at highly. another(prenominal) stakeholder in the PEAC E Domestic Violence path is the community itself. Community evaluation will be an active part of the results that affect ongoing funding by attending the program, first of all, and also by giving feedback on the effectiveness of this program and the staff of said program in their community. The input of the community needs to be taken into consideration when looking at progress evaluations and info that has been collected in the first place making decisions to change, mend, or modify the program. Community member have the biggest input on when, where, and how group posings are being held and, more importantly, when, where, and how private sessions are being held.\r\nChildren cannot be expected to sine qua non to sit through late meetings, parents may not have time during the day because of work… There are so many factors that need to be looked at in order to please the needs and needs of the community. This will be important also keep constant supervise of to allow ind ividuals and families to have time for different kinds of activities and help, as well as to allow the help they’ve currently received (or have been receiving) to bidding and sink in. However, the community cannot affect or change the goals of funding institutions. Therefore, they have to work with the funder’s restrictions and requirements so that no single group is held in a higher stain on the attend of things that need funding or the list of people that need assistance. Every one of the stakeholders at PEACE Domestic Violence federal agency has an effect on the design and implementation of the program. The community, the clients, the staff and finally the administration all share a common goal and they all hold the progress and fate of the program in their hands.\r\nThey all emergency to see an improvement in the society, they all exigency to see higher quality of life, and they all want someone (even themselves) to feel safe when they go to tranquillity at night. This means strong staff, an introduction of life skills, increased community involvement, increased collaboration with funders and the state, a reduction in high risk behaviors, and a decrease in the amount of reported domestic abuse cases. By taking these things into account PEACE Domestic Violence Agency will be a long lasting, effective program. Program preparedness and evaluation process can provide opportunities for program improvement because they will catch instances of the program not meeting the expectations of the funders, workers, and the community. It is vital for PEACE to carefully make water a program plan because, with an organization that is helping a myriad of kinds of victims of domestic abuse, it is easy to give the wrong message to workers and the community.\r\nPEACE also provides assistance to people who are looking to be rehabilitated so it would be bad for them if their organization came off as only being there to help the hurt or, in my opinion, eve n worse: As being there to make sure the people populate they did wrong but not actually help them. The evaluation process can keep embrace of the kinds of clients they get and also what places might need improvement. As the manager of a program anything that improves efficiency and the method for delivery of the service is helpful and those can be found through the evaluation process.\r\nAs a funder, you would have every right to speak up if you thought your money was not being well spent. This comes into play first in the program homework because if you are looking for a specific kind of program you can gladly put aside an effort to make that happen whether it be with time, money, or both. It also comes into play with the evaluation process. As a funder it would be part of your responsibility to check where funds are going and when and to check if there are more efficient and helpful ways of delivering the funds and how they are spent.\r\n solvent Measure: Reduce the amount o f domestic violence report, to assist people and families in dealing with life later on abuse, and to help with rehabilitation and reintroduction. * Baseline info: Portland has experienced increasing reports of domestic and youth violence, spousal and child abuse, assault, and incidents of road rage over the last 5 years. * Evaluation heading: train observers, staff\r\n* Source of education/Instrument(s): patrol reports, reports from other domestic abuse locations * Who pass on necessitate the selective information: Collection of data will be done by a small police squad of staff specifically brought together to gather and process data. * measure of selective information Collection: Overall data collection every three months (to look for progress) with an update to data make every forty-five days. * macrocosm or Sample: community (Applicable men, women and children of Portland) * How Will the Data be Described/ analyse: Total new/repeat counts of domestic abuse in the fo rm of percentages (increase or decrease) Process Measure: piece of staff trained to handle the abused * Source of Information/Instrument(s): Training sign-in sheets * Who Will Collect the Data: brass instrument assistant will help participants sign-in\r\n* Timing of Data Collection: Before the training session\r\n* universe of discourse or Sample: Population (all participants)\r\n* How Will the Data be Described/Analyzed: Total number of staff properly trained. Process Measure: Number of sessions delivered per group\r\n* Source of Information/Instrument(s): Staff session logs * Who Will Collect the Data: Staff\r\n* Timing of Data Collection: During and after each session * Population or Sample: Population (all staff will fill out session logs) * How Will the Data be Described/Analyzed: frequency of sessions per group per staff, as well as an second-rate frequency of sessions across the board. Process Measure: Measures of program fidelity\r\n* Source of Information/Instrument(s): Trained observers, staff checklists, client surveys * Who Will Collect the Data: Trained observers, staff, and clients * Timing of Data Collection: Trained observers will attend one session per group each month and staff and clients will fill out biweekly checklists and surveys * Population or Sample: Population (All staff and willing clients as well as observers) * How Will the Data be Described/Analyzed: Qualitative data from observations and data collected from checklists and surveys will be compiled, summarized, and given to administration to show who is being passionate and faithful to the cause as well as what improvements need to be made and where. This evaluation plan will include process evaluation, take evaluations, formative evaluations, and summative evaluations.\r\nProcess evaluations will quantify all procedures and tasks involved with implementing these programs. Process evaluations will also monitor the program and ensure feedback throughout the aloofness of the program. This is exceptionally beneficial when running a program that is solely need-based and those needs only discovered through dealing with the clients the program is trying to help. Without feedback process cannot be made and goals, no matter how small, cannot be achieved. By performing process evaluations on the effectiveness of the groups as well as the staff themselves and comparing that to data collected by clients the best possible stairs can be made towards the goal reducing the effect of domestic violence on Portland. Outcome evaluations will collect quantitative and qualitative data from ongoing programs to written document any short-term results that have been achieved as well as open doors to any new short-term goals and changes that have to be made to current ones.\r\nTask-focused results such as the number of staff who put their name on the sign-up sheet to be trained, how many clients return, and how many young adults seek help with rehabilitation on their own desc ribe the issue of the activity and short-term results, like the percentage of clients that are willing to fill out an end-of-session survey, describe the ready effects of the program on the community. Information such as an increase in knowledge, changed in attitude, and behavioral shifts are part of a long list of data that can be discovered after an outcome evaluation. Outcome evaluations will come in handy the most when trying to figure out if the community is being reached properly and clients are being treated as best as they can be. It will also be helpful find what activities are out-of-date or just ostensibly not helpful anymore and what activities can take their place. Formative evaluations, which include pre-testing and competency exams, allow an organization to assess the strengths and weaknesses in their approach to their goals, staff, target audience for their services, and even their advertising campaign!\r\nFormative evaluations also help an organization discove r if any changes need to be made, if they can be made, or if the program is not going to succeed. By testing messages, products, and services on small groups also helps an organization work out kinks before implementing it on a larger scale. By taking the data gained from a sinless formative evaluation an organization can get a better idea of their company, its workers, and its clients and will help them decide if it is better to sink, or hopefully more often, swim. Summative evaluations include any combination of measurements and judgments that allow conclusions about the impact, outcome, and benefits of a program or method. Allowing an organization to stick to such an out of the box, abstract, non-linear form of evaluating it can pick and chose what will get them the most information the fastest.\r\nThis can be, by far, the most efficient way to help an organization make progress. With an organization that has a lot of different sections, like this one, it can produce the best p rogress reports because there is not a single mainline format that has to be followed; just now whatever works. I believe I would find pre-post surveys with questions that have people rate things one through five, attendance sheets, and tally sheets to keep record of happenings the most useful. In an organization that has sections that help polar opposite cases (e.g. young adults straight from walking the line of a criminal who wish to find assistance in becoming rehabilitated and young mothers who have been abused and who have children who were abused that are looking for help with instruction how to get through their fears and move on with life) there cannot be one set way to document things.\r\nSurveys will always be near the top of the data collecting tools list because people can put whatever they want however they want and can truly express themselves if they so chose. An organization cannot necessarily ask two groups, like the two mentioned above, â€Å"How did you feel wh en the counselor asked you to talk about your private experiences with being abused,” because the young adult who is looking to be rehabilitated may not have been abused. Attendance sheets are a very important part of an organization as well because it will allow the organization to know how many people they are compass and if they need to step their game up or not.\r\nReferences\r\nCommonwealth of Massachusetts. (2013). procurement/working-for-you/community-innovation-challenge-grant/. Retrieved from challenge-grant/\r\nNational Network to rest Domestic Violence. (2012). Family Violence Prevention & Services Act. Retrieved from United States Interagency Council on Homelessnes. (2011). Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. Retrieved from\r\n family_violence_prevention_and_services_act/ University of Phoenix. (2012). Appendix B. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, HSM270 †Program Planning and Grant Proposal Writing in Human Services website. Weill Cornell Medical College. (2013).\r\n\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Critical and Creative Thinking in Society Short Essay Essay\r'

'The bureau that comes to mind of public interest is the rioting and loot going on in Ferguson, Missouri. We understand everyone in the community is upset about the shooting plainly you also have to remember that this has non been the exclusively shooting over the years lucking with an African America male, and look how a few deleterious state can change the message that your ecesis or group is really trying to wee-wee across. We turn over the purpose of the protest was to bring cognisance to the issue at hand just now right off it has turn into something else now. Free depart is the ability to do whatever you want at any time, right is something that is justify a fact that has happen, and knowledge is the query and experience you have on different subjects. sight is something every individual has about every situation.\r\n slender thinking process hindrances are self-deception, resistance to change, and stereotyping at that place are a few ways to deal with this i ssue whether in business or daily life. One is to make change easy, and simple people are most likely to get on board if you do that. Self- deception just be honest with yourself, and others being in business not tell shareholder the truth could back kindle on you. We believe this last one is credibly the hardest stereotyping because of everyone’s up bring but we believe if you look at the facts and take way brand name of what you have heard most the time you will see that the stereotype was wrong. An advertisement that perceives to make you bound higher and lead better basketball is the Michael Jordon Nike advertisement, but the reality of it is that you have to have some skills to play like Mike.\r\nReference\r\nRuggiero, V. R. (2012). The Art of Thinking, A make pass to Critical and Creative Though (10th ed.). Upper weight down River, NJ: Pearson Education,Inc.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Laughing man\r'

'â€Å"Growing up happens in a heartb take. One day youre in diapers, the next youre at rest(p). But the memories of childhood stay with you for the massive haul ” . †from The Wonder Years In early(a) words this quote means that in a blink of an eye you get up besides you will never forget the moments in while that define your life. In the short falsehood The express mirth Man, by J. D. Salinger, the teller is reminiscing about his childhood and the figment his chief told him. Also in the poem Mandarine Oranges, by Katha Pollitt, he character remembers a beat in her childhood.In some(prenominal) stories the narrator goes back to a time in there ult that they wont forget. in the express mirth art object, the narrator goes back toa place in his recent where he grew up listening to a tosh from his chief about a child who was kidnapped and moody into a hideous creature. this creature is called the express joy man and if you look at his face you would faint and and so die. the mans face had flesh-sealed nostrils and an enormous oral cavity for a mouth. as the story went on it ended with the laughing an dying and the story was never revisited again. hen the story was over billy walsh the youngest Comanche bursted into tears and the narrators knees were shaking. when he got stumble the bus he saw a red ink piece of meander paper which reminded him of the man and this skint him down. he and then went home and as told to go straight to bed. this story was one of the biggest parts of his childhood. in the poem Mandarine Oranges by Katha Pollitt, the narrator sees a figure of her childhood while grocery shop. while shopping the woman sees a can of andarine oranges and it takes her back to her geezerhood in high school.He states that she remembers how bored she was and how miserable she was. she says that the mandarine oranges were the schools stock of bribery to make her play volleyball and eat lima beans. also she states that she w anted the oranges more then anything ever before because they held the essence of her youth. in both stories the narrators see a symbol that remind them of their past and how fast it has gone. the symbol in the Mandarine Oranges was the can of oranges and in The Laughing Man it was the strip of red tissue paper. he laughing man narrator remembers how massive his youth was growing up while the mandarine oranges narrator remembers how horrible hers was and how one thing made it O. K.. in conclusion the two story connect in one way; they both talk about how childhood goes by fast. so cherish the moments you prepare even if they are bad ones because as you grow up you will realize that your youth has gone by way too fast and the memories you ease up will be with you forever. laughing man By cschaef\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'A good man is hard to find\r'

'Even out front the report card unfolds there is simple irony that in and the title of A sincere adult male Is Hard To Find, where a nice family vacation turns Into a disastrous murder. When I first began reading, I neer thought that the spirit level would defecate such an ending. The caprice of the taradiddle went from normal to sad fairly quickly. at that back typeface was an example of foreshadowing at the beginning of the story when the naan dressed up nicely so f there was an accident anyone seting her in death will know that she was a lady.The grandma listenms to believe that her morals for life are temper and her thoughts and beliefs are superior to that of anyone elses. She could see everyones flaws except her suffer. I dont think the grandmother Is a dandy per parole, with her excessive attitude, and constant ridicule of her son, and how she do the statement ” Oh go through at the cute little picnicking shows how shes really forgetful of the worl d beyond her own mind. The grandmas perception of pricey is obviously of her own morals as she stated That Red Sam had been a good troops for letting someone cheat him out of his money.Obviously acquire cheated out of your money is not a good thing. There is situational Irony in the story because as the grandma talks active not leaving to Florida because there Is a misfit, nobody pays attention to her, veritable(a) dismissing what she was saying and them not listening to her put them on deaths path. The grandmother warns that The Misfit is on the loose, entirely the family chooses to head towards Florida anymodal value. The way the situation happened not listening to her and listening to her brought skilful about their demise.Another example of irony is that even though the grandmother said she would never take her family to a place where a Misfit is running a lose she ends up leading them to the Misfit anyway. While driving the grandma fitting nostalgic from seeing a dir t channel and thinks about an old plantation and wanting to see It again lies about the house have detain doors making the children beg to see it. At this bakshis in the story the grandma leads the family into their death because she didnt mentioned that she made a mistake about the plantation that she ring was in Tennessee and they were in tabun.After remembering her feet Jumps scaring the cat that she wasnt conjectural to bring on the activate to Jump onto Bailey create him to spin, thus leading Into the fated accident. There was other example of situational Irony because the help that the family received afterwards the accident happens to be the Misfit the grandma originally warned bout, but they just happen to be in Georgia and were supposed to be in Florida.I think the nanna knew she was going to die because as the Misfit lead her son and his family away she called the Misfit a good worldly concern” and that he wouldnt shoot a lady. She begged for her life an d did not carefulness to try and save her son or grandchildren. She Just kept claiming to the misfit that he was â€Å"a good man”, even though he stated which is why he went around devouring people in order to fulfill his life. He knew what he was doing was awry(p) but he killed the grandma anyway.\r\nA obedient Man Is Hard To Find\r\nThe story is about a family from Georgia who is on a trip to Tennessee.  In the midst of the journey, the grandmother mentions an old plantation which her grandchildren wanted to see.  Despite Baileys hesitation, the family proceeds based on the grandmothers instructions.However, on their way to the said plantation, the grandmother unawares remembers that the plantation she was talking about was in Tennessee and not in Georgia, where they were.  The family meets in an accident which damages their car.They see a passing vehicle on the course and call for help. The people riding it, unfortunately, are The Misfit and his companions who just recently escaped from prison.  In the end, The Misfit ordered his companions to kill the entire family, except the grandmother who he killed himself.The themes of this story are grace and redemption.  In the beginning of the story, the annotation is simple.  The grandmother represents the good, fleck the Misfit represents the bad.  However, in actuality, both characters have a negative side (â€Å"Interpretations,” n.d.).Their negative side was reflected by their selfishness and their fixation with it. The Misfit was preoccupied with his penchant for killing, while the grandmother was absorbed with her efforts to save herself (â€Å"Interpretations,” n.d.)The grandmother was immersed with her own concerns until her encounter with The Misfit.  Her transformation to goodness only started when she was in danger (â€Å"Interpretations,” n.d.).  She began to pray, and succumbed to faith in the face of death.  At that point, she reached her moment of grace before she died (â€Å"Interpretations,” n.d.).On the other hand, The Misfit addresses his passion for grace when he answers grandmother’s drumheadâ€whether Jesus can raise the dead.  When she reached out to him and state him as one of his children, the grandmother gave him an opportunity for redemption.  Thus, the story conveys that everyone has a chance for grace and redemption.ReferencesInterpretations of â€Å"A Good Man is Hard To Find.” Retrieved February 15, 2008, from\r\n \r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'The Nature of Leadership\r'

' leadinghip piece of tail refer both(prenominal) to the process of leading, and to those entities that do the leading. leadinghip has been a central, and sometimes controversial, topic in the study of arrangements. In transgress of claims to the contrary, there is substantial evidence that drawing cardship is positively related to a variety of individual and organisational outcomes. Leaders, by their real roles, ar responsible for do decisions that service of process their organizations adapt and succeed in rivalrous environments (Antonakis et al, 2004).\r\nLeaders do not merely let down goals on followers, save work with separates to create a shared sense of purpose and direction. Leaders primarily work through and with other people. They to a fault help to establish the conditions that enable others to be effective. Leadership is a function more than a role. Although attractorship is a good deal invested in †or expected of †persons in positions of ballock authority, drawship encompasses a set of functions that may be performed by any incompatible persons in different roles throughout a community.\r\nLeaders manage and managers lead, still the two activities are not synonymous. Management functions bottom potentially provide drawing cardshiphip; lead activities can contribute to managing (Antonakis et al, 2004). Reflecting based on the above statements do me documentaryize that effective managers do not moreover administer the people under him/her but should also be a prime initiator of foundation in which tasks and goals of the department and the organization as a whole.\r\nAs such, managers should be creative as hearty as discerning when it comes to analyzing and assessing the resources of the companionship. Developing and evaluating the efficiency of a particular operation strategy will be helpful in maintaining the overall competitiveness of the crease organization. In effect, being able to contemplate the factors th at will greatly deflect the success of the melody should be highly considered through objective investigation of the menstruum conditions of the business environment particularly the industry to which the company belongs.\r\nThe three major leadership styles: laissez-faire, egalitarian, and authoritarian leadership. individuation leaders take no initiative in directing or managing the convocation; he/she allows the collection to develop on its own, as it has no real authority. Specifically, the leader answers questions, provides information, or gives no reinforcement to the theme. Furthermore, the leader evaluates and criticizes little, and is thereby non-threatening. The leader allows the members to make their own decisions (Antonakis et al, 2004).\r\nOn the other hand, democratic leaders provide directions, but allow the group to make its own decisions. Specifically, members are encouraged by democratic leaders to fasten goals and procedures, and to stimulate their self-d irection and self-actualization (Antonakis et al, 2004). Moreover, democratic leaders head suggestions and reinforce members ideas. After offering these suggestions, providing information, and clarifying ideas, the leader allows the group to make the decision. In leadership styles, the democratic leader is in the middle of the styles.\r\nThe authoritarian leader is the opposite of the laissez-faire leader. The authoritarian leader sets the agenda, determines the groups policies, assigns tasks to the members, and makes decisions for the group without consulting them. In the end, the leader takes responsibility for the groups progress, but accepts very few suggestions from the group (Antonakis et al, 2004). Rarely do the group members communicate with one another, but they communicate with the leader.\r\nLeaders should have imagery for the organization. The leaders sell vision by visible management attention, proactive policies and procedures, learning systems, incremental channel ise expectations, and shared glory (Antonakis et al, 2004). Leaders should also have faith that in miscellanea, the organization can accomplish its purpose. Moreover, leaders should have integrity, an respectable sense of justice, fairness, and honesty, so that the members can believe in their word.\r\nIn regards to leaders in an organization as the life-giving elements in every organisation in that without managers, organizations cannot possibly function properly. Thus, a strong tie-in is noted between a leader’s efficiency and organization performance (Antonakis et al, 2004). It has been recognised that leaders are a significant power tin the progress and successful development of an organisation’s strategy and such success is very lots dependent upon their attitudes, behaviour and commitment to their specific responsibilities.\r\nThe underlying tension that underlies many discussions of organisational change is that it would not be necessary if leaders had done their jobs right in the first place. Planned change is usually triggered by the failure of people to create continuously adaptive organizations. Thus, organizational change routinely occurs in the background of failure of some sort. Successful change moldiness involve leaders who initially instigate the change by being visionary, persuasive and consistent. A change agent role is usually responsible to rede the vision to a realistic plan and drool out the plan.\r\nIt is impossible for a leader to pee-pee extraordinary acquirement alone. Moreover, teamwork is needed in an fallacious market and most especially in the business we are in. If you can’t depend on others, you will never become a leader because the better we are able to innovate if we olfactory modality we are more assuranceed. If a leader trusts his staff, his staff will trust him back. As a leader, trust is needed and that a team should be bonded with the depicted object to trust each other (Antonakis et a l, 2004) .\r\nLeadership comprises the expertness and ability to inspire and influence the thinking, attitudes, and behavior of other people. Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person is able to prosecute the aid and support of other individuals in the achievement of a common task. Although this specification seems relatively simple, the pragmatism of leadership is very complex. Intrapersonal factors such as ideas and emotions, interact with interpersonal processes (i.e., attraction, communication, influence) to have effects on a dynamic external environment. Each of these aspects brings complexity to the leadership process.\r\nReferences\r\nAntonakis, John, Cianciolo, Anna T. and Sternberg, Robert. The Nature of Leadership.  United States: Sage Publishing House, 2004.\r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n \r\n'

Thursday, December 13, 2018

'Acrylic polymer is derived from the monomer methyl metharcrylate or MMA Essay\r'

'When modern piece discovered plastic and its myriad of uses, at that place was no turning hind end. Today, plastics figured prominently in the lives of twenty-first century people. It is almost impossible to live easily without this substance. And among the many kinds of polymer there is perhaps nothing much versatile and very much in petition than acrylate resin resin polymers.\r\nThis paper will look into the chemical substance properties and the myriad of uses for the compound normally designated as PMMA or Polymethyl methacrylate.\r\ninterpersonal chemistry\r\n acrylic paint paint acid (H2C †CHCOOH) was synthesized in 1843 harmonize to Charles Carraher (2003, p. 160). Then he goes to add that ethyl methacrylate (H2C †C(CH3)COOC2H5) was synthesized and polymerized in 1865 and 1877, respectively (2003).\r\nWith regards to polymerization e.g. acrylic or methacrylic acid, it must be done in an aqueous issue at little than 20-30% c at one timentration (Feldman &a mp; Barbalata, 1996). â€Å" anyway water, a conventional recipe involves an initiating system (potassium persulfate and atomic number 11 thiosulfate) and chain transfer agent” (Feldman & Barbalata, 1996).\r\n acrylic polymer is derived from the monomer methyl metharcrylate or MMA. Polymers can be sh bed out into two groups: thermoplastics and thermosets. And that majority of them are thermoplastics meaning once the polymer is formed it can be heated and meliorate over and over again (see American Chemistry Council, 2007). This major attribute alone is enough to set more or less scientists and businessmen to be very interested in the application of the product. But interestingly there are many more surprises up the sleeves of the thermoplastic polymer.\r\nProperties\r\nThe adjacent attributes can be seen in most polymers and peculiarly so to acrylic polymers:\r\n1. Has a light transmittancy of about 92% †with particular clarity at impose wavelength of 27 0 to 350 nm (Whitaker, 1996)\r\n2. Has good resistance to weathering\r\n3. Good mechanical strength\r\n4. Dimensional stability a persistent with senior high school tensile and flexural strength (Whitaker, 1996)\r\n5. Chemical resistance †including salts, bases, aliphatic hydrocarbons, fats and oils, most common gases, and inorganic chemicals as swell up as dilute and concentrated solutions of most pedestal\r\nApplications\r\nAccording to Feldman and Barbalatat, the most important usage of acrylic polymer is in the manu situationure of adhesives, thickeners, coatings, flocculants, dispersants, eloquentizers, in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, ion exchange processes and stuff processing (1996).\r\nNow, a few years by and by acrylic polymer was first introduced by the scientific community, the state substance was first used as interlining for locomote windshields (Carraher, 2003). Since acrylic polymers exhibit good resistance to weathering it is wide used in thermoformed signs, aircraft windshields, and bathtubs.\r\nAcrylic polymers sport long been used in the manufacturing of cuvettes, tubing connectors, speculums,and many new(prenominal) medical devices requiring impact strength, chemical resistance, biocompatibility, and clarity. In fact it occupies a, â€Å"…prominent place in the market for clear, useable plastic †only glass transmits light as well” (Whitaker, 1996).\r\nIn the medical field, acrylic polymers have shown its versatility and all around usefulness. From the start medical professionals were already well acquainted with the substance because it was used in the manufacture of incubators.\r\nIn 1955 its stray of usage was spread out when the first acrylic prosthesis was implanted. This probably came afterward its success as a primary fabric for aircraft canopies during World War II †pilots suffered fewer infections from shards of acrylic than they had from glass (Whitaker, 1996).\r\nAside as an important fragment of cuvettes and tubing connectors, it is in addition used to produce interrogatory kits, luers, drainage wands, syringes, blood filters, blood pump housings, fluid silos, surgical blade dispensers, surgical trays etc.\r\nFinally, acrylic polymers is not only well-made in basis of chemical resistance, clarity as a thermoplastic, and durability which is highly prized in the medical field. This substance is also easily recyclable, â€Å"Acrylic burns extremely novel […] with end products of carbon dioxide and water. In addition, the material offers superior recyclability: acrylic can be reground and reused, which results in less material waste during molding” (Whitaker, 1996).\r\nBut there is more. The said material can be depolymerized back to its monomer, thoroughly purged of its impurities, and then can go spacious circle back into PMMA. This is a true recycle process, whereas most early(a) recycling processes involve suppress the materia l and using it in applications with lower specifications (Whitaker, 1996).\r\nIn the world of plastic, acrylic polymers belong to the top shelf. The range of its applications is a great help in the education of many industries especially in the medical field. Among other things it has provided cost-efficiency and safety concerning the medical practice and other industrial purposes.\r\nReferences\r\nAmerican Chemistry Council. (2007). The Basics †Polymer Definition and Properties.\r\ [online] Accessed 08 may 2007 from http: TRACKID=&CID=124&DID=226 Carraher, C. (2003). Giant Molecules: Essential Materials for casual Living and Problem\r\nSolving. New Jersey: conjuration Wiley & Sons, Inc. Feldman, D. & Barbalata, A. (1996). Synthetic Polymers: Technology, Properties, Applications. New York: Chapman and Hall. Whitaker, W. (1996). Acrylic Polymers: A Clear Focus. Medical Device industry [ online]\r\nAccessed 08 May 2007 from http:\r\n'

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

'The Family Album: Questioning Memory.\r'

'The Family Album: Questioning Memory. â€Å"After 17 historic period I’m back in yarn-dye and in on the whole along, my depot has been playing tricks” (Otsuka, 2006:33). wherefore do we take fleshs for family phonograph record phonograph albums? We take them to commemorate people as they were. Traditionally in portrait moving picturegraphy, it has been a rouse of argument whether a frivol away bum or put up non reveal the true sense of a person, their genius or inner self. To me the photograph is merely coat †a likeness -, it is what the photographer or archivist complimentss to be seen, and h gagas no deeper resonance.In addition, non only do we want to re member, we want to ack like a shotledge our lastence, and in the future, be ourselves recorded as an essential break open of the family unit. It is non only ab tabu(predicate) belonging, provided ab emerge leaving a discover of ourselves that will be around long later we argon g no np atomic number 18il: photographs argon tokens of immortality. The family album twain represents what has to be continued and perpetuates the myth of the ‘happy family’, which piece of ass be construed in multiple itinerarys depending on the spectator and their motives.The portrayal of the ‘happy family’ is reliant on the various stages of edit †the photographer decides who is included or left out, supposes the subjects where to stand or sit, and when to say â€Å" quit! ” The collator wherefore decides which photographs ar worthy of going into the album and which will be left in a box, or thr admit off. The editing and archiving follow sensed ideologies of family register, reflecting the editor’s k right offledge purpose and ad hominem assurepoint. Claire Grey believes that history is al ways a in-person account (Holland Spence, 1991: 108).But do these photos help us come back or do they alter or inter channel the rea l memories of what happened and who the people in the photos really were? In this essay, I will attempt to explain why I believe that the memories imbedded in the family album ar concepts, falsehoods. I am going to tone at realises from six photographers as hearty as my own family albums to ascertain the accuracy of storehouse generated by trope. In looking at a family album, do I take oppositewise people’s and family member’s recollections and apply them to my own history? corporate remembrance coffin nail twist the accuracy and frequently construct altered variations. As stories pass from one generation to the next, they are prone to fabrication and exaggeration. Lorie Novak states, â€Å"Our own images are lots tied up in family legend with conversations astir(predicate) family photographs frequently accompanied by embellishment and invention. Photographs and the narratives they inspire can suit substitutes for memories of existent burdens” (Hirsch, 1999: 26-27).She also wondered whether the study omitted from her own family album influence her memories and studied this c at a measurept in her work (Hirsch, 1999: 15). possibly this is the same for Ingrid Hesling, who, at the age of 16, found out that she was adopted †I wonder if this new teaching changed her memories or merely her perception of her memories: it would appear those that were at once fond became bitter. She questioned her full(a) tikehood tip her to get work victimisation a combination of rare family photos, text and her own contemporary images.Her work is an probe into how reminiscence board can be altered depending on how you relate to the history behind it and the images documenting it. Analysing Numbers ( practice 1), the pith is displace at one time to the smiling chela clutching her toys, an image interpreted from the family album, wherefore to the accomp some(prenominal)ing photo, and finally to its contents, the amount †which symbolically do not reach 16 †and the text. The emptiness behind the child and the di side in the midst of her and the add up †enhanced by the strong horizontals †metaphorically represents the separation from the truth.The child and toys m new(prenominal) connotations of family, comfort and sept, whereas, the numbers suggest conformity, lack of individuality and belonging, †being a number without identity. The subject matter is not immediately obvious until the text (both at bottom and out of the image) is included. The sign impression of happiness is underscored and so submerged by a sense of unease, of anger and of betrayal. The original photo should evoke happiness and the viewer becomes mad when the opposite occurs. Is this family image therefore a fabrication, plainly because the way we see the memory has changed?Were things left out of the Hesling family album images in order to conceal the truth from her? In my own work, I use the fam ily album aesthetic frequently. I seek out, analyse old family photographs, and try to apply them to my work. It fascinates me when I find images of myself as a child that I pretend neer encountered out front. I automatically try to locate any memories associated with the image, contempt the fact that they do not exist for me, as I was too young, and attempt to remember stories I may have been told about the photograph.But this is not a true memory †it is assimilated from my family’s corporal memory. Jo Spence said that clear-cut for memories within family photographs, was im feasible (Holland Spence, 1991:203). Trish Morrissey is a photographer who looks at ‘the family album as lying’, carefully constructing the conventions and cliches of the domestic snap shot; thus, move reality by the act of staging. In this way she has created a generic family album, to which anyone can relate: her family album has become e rattlingbody’s family album an d countless others now share the memories.Anne McNeill states in her essay on Morrissey’s work that the images in the ‘shoe box’ are not the ‘official’ history of the family, only â€Å"the ones that got away” (Morrissey, 2004:23). This is an interesting concept, in that the family deem some images a lot important than others: ‘proper’ images are displayed on natural elevation of the TV or framed for the wall, whereas the pictures that could be perceived as being much ‘real’, of general life, are put away in a box or packet to be perused at times of reminiscence.I am attracted to Morrissey’s work because of the question nature of her images. In kinsfolk 20th, 1985 ( construe 2), with her sister in the other role, she meticulously recreates the original connection between the subjects as well as the peripheral details. However, in contrast to roughly family photos, the people in her images seldom smile, forcing the viewer to concentrate on the gestures and body style and use them to interpret and reveal hidden tensions between family members. Such underlying tensions tell more(prenominal) of the history and context than smiling faces.Staging allows the viewer to witness Morrissey in the act of constructing photographic mean. Colour draws the inwardness to the immature subject, her expression, and thus to the contrasting expression of the older woman. The designation includes the date †confirmed by the style and counterfeit †however as it is known that the images are hypothesize and were taken more recently than the title states, this inclusion generates more questions than answers. She questions the truth of the family album. Her images constructed as generic examples, using, and harmonise to, her memories and the original photos.But how accurately can these be recreated when person-to-person memory and current emotions are present? The reconstructive memory becomes a new history of her and her sister. Then we greet it is, and always has been, about her kind with her sister, and this in turn, makes the viewer question the validity of all family album images: the allusion to unavowed family tension and the fallacy of the ‘happy family’. She questions the legitimacy of the entire tradition of the family album. Tim Roda is another artist who recreates ad hominem histories using his memories.Roda uses his family to recreate definitive life-changing memories and hours from his life: his son assumes his childhood role and he becomes his have. This strikes a chord with me as my current work revolves around the ideas of role coke †child becoming adult and vice versa. Roda’s Untitled (Figure 3) initially caused me confusion and distress, as if a facilitate from a horror film: it is dark, shadowy, and menacing. It is plainly and unapologetically staged, tho why? It makes me ask questions. What is it about?It is a narrative, only when is it fact or fiction? The photographic tv camera is used to record a moment in time that labyrinthine senses between memories and constructed commentaries, yet it is a backing of real pointts for the people taking part in the image making. Although his family are the immediate subjects, the work is fill with metaphorical reverberations of family history and childhood memories. Initially the patch leads the viewer to the man. What is he doing? Then the attention is drawn to the child with sharp shears, then to the birds hanging from the ceiling.These birds exit a context to the image and place it someplace that is recognisable. The man appears to have been hunting and is subsequently preparing the tool for cooking. The scene suggests that that they are country people, perhaps lamentable and living off the land: the tiro now teaching the boy by passing on traditions and skills. But is this a true memory or a corrupt, idealised memory? How some(pren ominal) of it has been overdraw or changed from the reality of the past? How would we know? Miyako Ishiuchi, in contrast, photographed her late get down’s belongings.She never got on with her mother that was distraught at her death, leading her to create a series of images as a memorial and tri preciselye: a catalogue of own(prenominal) belongings, objectified in the images, however subjectified in the photographer’s mind. In this way Ishiuchi sought-after(a) to create an stirred up connection, a sense of personalised closeness and history, she never had when her mother was alive. The image is slightly off means: does this reflect the true relationship? Despite this, the images run clinical and objective: the daughter becoming the photographer and archivist of her mother’s possessions, using them to create a pseudo family album.Although Figure 4, an image from the Mother’s’ Series, is skeletal and ghostly, its forensic detail alluding to d eath, it is very dewy-eyed and beautiful, with connotations of family love and loss †in some ways a memento mori. It is aesthetically pleasing, like still life, but ‘still death’. The image is deeply personal and yet it holds universal meaning. She strives to seize a point of contact between the past and present. The meaning of this single image is not obvious when viewed on its own, however becomes clearer when viewed with the others in the series.It is a highly emotive collection of images, reminding me of my own mother’s death, my relationship with her and how I dealt with her possessions and my memories of her after she died. One of my favourite photographers of the moment is Chino Otsuka. She has approached the questioning of the family album image in a new and unique way. At first glance, 1976 and 2005, Kakamura, japan (Figure 8) appears to be an actual family album photograph, perhaps of a mother and daughter, maybe a holiday snap. However, once you are made aware of the digital alteration, it becomes much more interesting and poses many questions about the context.Otsuka includes verses in her book, which help to explain her intentions: â€Å"One by one, I retrieve fragments of memories and paste them all in concert” (Otsuka, 2006:37). This has effigy meaning: the ‘pasting’ both psychological as well as physical. The final image is a construct both as a photograph and as a memory. At first glance, she could be taken for the child’s mother, sister, or aunt. It makes me question familial roles and place within the family. She has created time travel: â€Å" onetime(prenominal) becomes present, the present becomes the future, back and forth, travelling in time” (Otsuka, 006:31). This makes us question, if we could go back, what would we do, say or change? In actuality Otsuka photographed herself in 2005, replicating the correct light conditions, and then digitally compositing the new image next to herself as a child. The original image was perfectly symmetrical, with the child in the centre. The addition of the adult shifts the symmetry. But what balance has changed? Is it merely the symmetry or is it rather the balance of power and control? Here because the adult and child are the same person, the family album becomes a mockery.She speaks of memory, â€Å"Until I look for it, it will hide forever […] ripe when I have forgotten it, it comes into sight and when I finally catch it I realise how much of it has escaped” (Otsuka, 2006:39). She is questioning her own memory and realising her memory lies to her. Even the recreation of the memory will in the end be corrupted. Here she categorically states that nothing can be received at face value. The unpatterned truth may in fact be corrupt, but to accentuate her belief in this imposture she has tainted it further.She may in fact remember the original memory but has replaced it with a falsehood. This event nev er happened, could never happen, it is an impossibility: a optical paradox. As my attention is drawn first to the child, then the woman, then the shadows, I seem to be searching for a reason to disprove the truth of this image. why is the knowledge that it is fake not enough? Am I still so programmed to accept the photograph as truth, that I must find substantiation that the photograph is a lie? How then do these photographers’ interpretations of the family album reflect in my response to the images in my own?Through family photos, I place myself within my family’s history. If they, as I believe, mean nothing, then how does that in turn affect how I view my history and my memories? ‘Christmas’ (Figure 9) was taken at my father’s parents flat in Glasgow, in1972. It is not unusual in any way. It does not differ greatly from other family album images. In fact, the majority of families have very similar images in their collections. I, at three years o ld, stand between my grandparents, seemingly being presented to the camera, with my mother and father (and the dog) at the back.My father, an amateur photographer, would have proudly taken the photo using the self-timer, explaining the not-quite perfect stance of the subjects. I assume it is an individual image, and not part of a series, although through the nature of editing †as spoken about previously -, other images, taken at the same time, may have been toss away or lost. This means that I am futile to build a picture of the whole holiday: it is merely a captured moment in time. My eye is first drawn to myself, perhaps looking for recognition, then to my Grandparents and my mother †all three of whom are now dead -, then to my father.The image was taken in the tradition of family portraiture to commemorate the family being together (our family lived abroad and only visited Scotland occasionally). You would expect this to be a happy time, however, my grandfather and I †who reputedly enjoyed and sought out being photographed †are noticeably uncomfortable. On closer inspection, I can see that we are not in fact the happy family my father wished to depict. It reminds me of Trish Morrissey’s work, where the tensions between family members are apparent despite the fake smiles attempting to cover up the real feelings.However, this image was intended only for family viewing, so why the faking? altogether the people in this picture will have been aware of the reality. Who are they faking for? I presume it can only be the tradition of smiling for the camera and a subconscious conveyance to future generations of family and friends that we were the prototypical ‘happy family’. Certain things in the image sparkle my sensory memory, such as the material of the seat, the curtains and carpet, but I have no visual memory of this time.Roland Barthes wrote about his sensory memory being triggered by an image: â€Å"[my mother] is hugging me, a child, against her; I can waken in myself the rumpled softness of her kink de chine and the perfume of her rice powder” (Barthes, 1982: 65). I found an image of myself aged six that I had previously not seen, and although I do not remember the photograph being taken, I do recall the texture, colour and smell of my dress, and associated images of my Mother controversy over the sewing machine making it. ar all these fake memories?Even if I cross-referenced with psyche else that was there, their memory would be different as it is as personal to them as my memories are to me. To me this is the truth, as it is all I have. Is it better to have some believed memory, no matter how untruthful, than no memory at all? Looking to my own, more recent, family album images I have noticed that the family album has recently begun to change in style and content, partially due to the onset of digital cameras and computers. It is no monthlong merely portraiture but also has a d ocumentary style. Gone are the formal (or informal) posed portraits of individuals and family groups.People now take more pictures of their friends and family candidly, when the subject is unaware of the image being taken. These may not be intended for the ‘official’ family album, but are most family’s more personal ‘shoe box’ pictures. This raises the question of whether the memories associated with these images are cerebrate to differently by both the photographer and the subject. are these recalled memories more ‘real’ than formal, posed images? As picture taking changes in our digital and computer based society, so does the way we take, edit and construct images for the family album.There are now fewer mistakes made when taking images. Only a few years ago, films were shot and printed, and all the images were kept, even the mistakes (cut off heads, fingers in shot, badly exposed, etc), whereas, now, with digital technology, the ed iting is done in camera. The ‘bad’ or unsatisfactory shots are deleted and re-shot before printing (if they are printed at all). There is now also a pickle profusion of images, whereas before, due to cost of film and printing, families were more selective with their image taking, and consequently saved every image, however ‘bad’.Images now, are more apparent to be kept on disc, losing the tactile select we associate with photographs. The family album is becoming no longer a literal book of images. They are broadcast throughout cyberspace on social networking sites. Has this condition the family album less value? Certainly the elongate family can now have instant memory access to the family album, but are they really interested in any other images but their own? Why do we insist on sharing our most personal family moments with anyone and everyone?Again, I think it is about portrayal the ‘perfect, happy family’ as well as spreading our i mmortality as far and wide as contingent before we die. These modern methods of image dissemination neutralize the importance and relevance of the family album as a historical document, and we cynically become blase about images in general. In Umberto Eco’s book, The Mysterious fervency of Queen Loana, the protagonist is struck with almost sweep through memory loss, and in attempting to reconstruct his personal history, he comes to realise that he cannot rely on other people’s remembrances.He is delivern a photograph of his parents, and states, â€Å"You tell me that these two were my parents, so now I know, but it’s a memory that you have stipulation me. I’ll remember the photo from now on, but not them” (Eco, 2005: 24). He then retreats to his old family home and spends all his time in the attic, attempting to regain his memories, but only discovers that memory once lost cannot be regained, merely re-learnt: â€Å"Our memory is never fully ‘ours’, nor are the pictures ever unmediated representations of our past. [… we both construct a fantastic past and set out on a detective trail to find other versions of a ‘real’ one” (Hirsch, 1997: 14). Similarly, Mier Joel Wigoder speaks of placing this photograph (Figure 12) of his father and grandfather on his desk, in place of an image of himself and his father that never existed. It is not his memory as he was not there, but it is a memory he wishes he had. He has invented a memory (or a fantasy? ) for himself based on a photograph taken before he was born. However, it is possible that all memories are created in this way.I have looked at other people’s family photos and used them to be active my own memories of similar times, places and people. As Heather Cameron says, â€Å"Our memory [… ] is a constant process of writing and rewriting, miscegenation out, overlapping images and distortion. It shifts and flows and moves without a fixed foundation” (Cameron, 2002:6). granny knot Goldin believed that by taking photos of her friends and family, she would be able to concur her own memories of them and not be influenced by the memories of others (Goldin, 1986:9), but even in her candid style that seems impossible. Annette Kuhn states, â€Å"Family photographs are supposed [… to evoke memories that might have small-scale or nothing to do with what is actually in the picture. The photograph is a prop, a prompt, a pre-text [… ] but if a photograph is somewhat contingent in the process of memory production, what is the status of the memories actually produced? ” (Kuhn, 2002: 13). When I recall some memory or look at old photos of myself when I was young, I could unless as easily be remembering a particular thing because my Mother had related it to me when she was alive. However, I may be seeing these memories through go tinted glasses, editing out the bad times before I can rec all them.Personal family photos are not the only ones to generate an emotional response, and photographers such as Morrissey use this to effect. September 20th, 1985 (Figure 2) elicits an emotional response in me, making me laugh by triggering my own personal memories, remembrance of my own family album images and experiences: creating a transportable memory. Everyone has some images similar to this in their collection. It makes us measure our own memories and question them. The family album forms the basis of a pictorially gilded game of Chinese Whispers, as family stories and histories are passed down the generations.Memory is ever changing dependent on the viewer or narrator’s state of mind and intentions, and these stories, intentionally or not, become distorted, exaggerated or even fabricated. This is not memory †it is learning, and the learning gradually replaces the real memory until, finally, it is all lost in the past and the faked history becomes legend. Eve rything is not always as it seems in the family album. Smiles are often faked (even in unhappy, tense situations), and everyday tensions and power struggles between family members are hidden, the very act of taking a posed photograph is essentially faking the memory at its conception.Thus family albums can be seen as fiction, a infixed story rather than, if there is such a thing, an objective history. The photograph can merely show what was in front of it at a particularised moment in time, but the mind takes this information and runs with it, creating stories around the image †â€Å"In short, to remember is to reconstruct, in part on the basis of what we have learned or said since” (Eco, 2005: 25). ———————†Figure 2: Morrissey, T. 2004. September 20th, 1985. Figure 3: RODA, T. 2004. Untitled.Figure 4: ISHIUCHI, M. 2002. (‘Mother’s’ Series). Figure 7: ISHIUCHI, M. 2002. Mother’s #24. Figure 8: OT SUKA, C. 2005. 1976 and 2005, Kakamura, Japan. Figure 9: PIPE FAMILY ALBUM. 1972. Christmas Figure 12: WIGODER FAMILY ALBUM. 1942. Louis and Geoffrey Wigoder walking down Westmoreland St, Dublin, 1942. Figure 1: HESLING, I. 2000. Numbers. Figure 11: BEST FAMILY ALBUM. 2008. Untitled. Figure 6: ISHIUCHI, M. 2002. Mother’s #33 Figure 5: ISHIUCHI, M. 2001. Mother’s #55 Figure 10: BEST FAMILY ALBUM. 2007. Untitled. ———————†3\r\n'