Friday, May 31, 2019

Protecting the Privacy of Individuals on the Internet Essay -- Interne

Protecting the secrecy of Individuals on the InternetOver the past decade the world has gotten much smaller due to the electronic parley the Internet has fostered. While this promotes business and international relations, problems arise regarding the protection of individuals personal education. Many countries around the world have developed cover policies and laws protect an individuals information in the realm of electronic communication. Universal enforcement gets complicated because the Internet is not restricted to one country its worldwide. As a result, concerns arise regarding the compatibility of divers(a) countries privacy policies. This paper will discuss the current legislation in place for various major countries1, the existing conflicts between these countries policies and the implications these conflicts hold for the protection of privacy on the Internet.To begin, consider how countries handle the privacy of individuals in general, not exclusively in the electronic environment. Most countries around the world protect an individuals right to privacy in some respects, because privacy is a fundamental human right that has become one of the most important human rights of the sophisticated age2. Definitions for privacy vary according to context and environment. For example, in the United States Justice Louis Brandeis defined privacy as the right to be left totally3. In the United Kingdom, privacy is the right of an individual to be protected against intrusion into his personal life or affairsby direct corporeal means or by publication of information4. Australian legislation states that privacy is a basic human right and the reasonable expectation of every(prenominal) person5. Regardless of varying definitio... ...21.20 Cranor 29.21 Country Reports 22.22 privateness Act of 2003. Wesley C. Maness. 23 October 2003. yale.edu/classes/cs457/Wesley_Maness.ppt slide 1.23 Wesley Maness slide 48.24 Privacy and Human Rights 2003 Overview 9.25 Privacy an d Human Rights 2003 Overview 9.26 TRUSTe Unveils European Union Safe Harbor Privacy Seal Program. Dave Steer. 1 November 2003. paginate 1.27 Privacy and Human Rights 2003 Overview 10.28 Privacy and E-Government Privacy Impact Assessments and Privacy Commissioners Two Mechanisms for Protecting Privacy to Promote Citizen Trust Online. Paige Anderson and Jim Dempsey. 1 May 2003.http//www.privacyinternational.org/survey/phr2002/ page 1.29 Privacy and E-Government 3.30 Privacy and E-Government 7.31 Privacy and E-Government 7.32 Privacy and E-Government 7.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Body Essay -- Sexuality

The social and cultural conditions in which we live in today continue to perpetuate and maintain the rape culture that pervades our lives, in particular for the lives of individual women. As a feminist thinker, Ann Cahill works to change this by challenging current definitions of rape as assault, and addressing questions of why rape exists in the root place, and how we can begin the prevention process. In Cahills book, Rethinking Rape, she approaches the subject of rape by analyzing the works of contemporary feminist theorists like Judith Butler, who perceive the pistillate ashes as a potential site of resistance against gender-based oppression and a larger system of sexual domination (Cahill 32). Although each is addressing very dissimilar issues in feminist theory, Cahill does draw upon some of Butlers ideas about the imitation and performance of gender in Butlers essay assumed and Gender Insubordination. Cahill does this in order to further articulate her critique of the body and the bureau it plays in the phenomenon of rape as an embodied experience of women at the aim of the individual (Cahill 109). There are certain concepts besides the performance of gender that both Authors touch on including the body, heterosexual norms as inhibitions to attaining liberation, the relationship between sexuality and gender, and the problematic nature of social constructs. By comparing and contrasting the works of Cahill and Butler, this paper will explore the importance and complexities of the body, the pivotal role it plays in Cahills critique of the phenomenon of rape, and how Butlers critique of coming out of the closet values the notion of gender performativity more than the notion ofthe body itself.Before de... ... feminine body so we internalize that ideal and subject ourselves to the intrusive, expensive, and high maintenance practices in order to be rendered beautiful (Cahill 155).There are a number of factors that play into the perpetuation of rap e culture, the hierarchy of gender, and gender performativity. The one thing they all have in common that is essential to collar how men have been able to oppress us for so long and continue to oppress us. The body is the one thing that can maintain our unfavorable position and powerlessness, but it can also be the one thing that can free us from the same system of oppression. Works CitedButler, Judith. Imitation and Gender Insubordination. The due south Wave A Reader in Feminist Theory. Ed. Linda Nicholson. New York Routledge, 1997. 300-15. Print.Cahill, Ann J. Rethinking Rape. Ithaca Cornell UP, 2001. Print.

Making New Writing :: Personal Narrative

Making New Writing This assignment is for my Writing, Style, and Technology class at University. The focus of the class is supposed to be on computers, Internet, etc. unless for our first major project, the goal was to create a new type of writing technology. The catch was that we couldnt use common writing tools like paper or pencils. We had to use natural items and things we could find around the house like food, paper clips, dirt, etc. And the finished work was to be a word or outline sentence using that new technology. The idea was to act as an writing inventor and get an understanding of the thoughts and processes that went into making some of the common writing technologies utilise today. Many of those evolved from using items in ways that werent originally intended. For example, the first computers were originally used for complex math calculations and not for word processing, until later adaptations against the desires of many primaeval computer operators who thought ma king letters as too simple (Baron 46). That was the idea for this assignment making words with tools not normally used to frame with and to temporarily get beyond the normal practices we grew up with to understand how people in the past felt with the introduction of new writing practices. The first bid that got stuck in my head when the assignment was first presented was the one about not using any man-made things. Going outside in the cold/ deoxycytidine monophosphate and digging up natural tools wasnt a pleasant idea. But history has shown that making new writing technologies often turns into a dirty process. In eighteenth century French, pencil-maker Nicholas-Jacques Conte had to deal with pencil graphite shortages by creating his own mixture of graphite and other material like clay and water (Baron 44). Replaying a trade union movement like that didnt sound very fun. But I probably wasnt paying enough attention in class when the assignment was first talked about to hold that it wasnt that limiting. After carefully reading the instructions, it appeared that man made items *could* be used, but not ones that are extensions of common writing tools (paint, nail polish). That was a relieving realization. Going in nature was then ruled out for weather reasons, and the search for a new writing technology began at home. My room was filled with papers, pens, and other nurture stuff, so searching there wouldnt have done any good.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Atomic Bomb :: essays research papers

Just forward the beginning of World War II, Albert learning ability wrote a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Urged by Hungarian-born physicists Leo Szilard, Eugene Wingner, and Edward Teller, Einstein told Roosevelt about Nazi German efforts to purify Uranium-235 which might be used to build an atomic bomb. Shortly subsequently that the United States Government began work on the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was the code name for the United States effort to develop the atomic bomb before the Germans did. "The first successful experiments in splitting a uranium atom had been carried out in the autumn of 1938 at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin"(Groueff 9) just after Einstein wrote his letter. So the race was on. Major General Wilhelm D. Styer called the Manhattan Project "the most important job in the war . . . an all-out effort to build an atomic bomb."(Groueff 5) It turned out to be the biggest development in warfare and sciences bigg est development this century. The most complicated issue to be addressed by the scientists working on the Manhattan Project was "the production of ample amounts of enriched uranium to sustain a chain reaction."(Outlaw 2) At the time, Uranium-235 was hard to extract. Of the Uranium ore mined, only about 1/500 th of it ended up as Uranium metal. Of the Uranium metal, "the fissionable isotope of Uranium (Uranium- 235) is relatively rare, occurring in Uranium at a ratio of 1 to 139."(Szasz 15) Separating the atomic number 53 part Uranium-235 from the 139 parts Uranium-238 proved to be a challenge. "No ordinary chemical extraction could disrupt the two isotopes. Only mechanical methods could effectively separate U-235 from U-238."(2) Scientists at Columbia University solved this difficult problem. A "massive enrichment laboratory/plant"(Outlaw 2) was built at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. H. C. Urey, his associates, and colleagues at Columbia University designe d a system that "worked on the principle of gaseous diffusion."(2) After this process was completed, "Ernest O. Lawrence (inventor of the Cyclotron) at the University of California in Berkeley implemented a process involving magnetic separation of the two isotopes."(2) Finally, a gas centrifuge was used to further separate the Uranium-235 from the Uranium-238. The Uranium-238 is forced to the bottom because it had to a greater extent mass than the Uranium-235. "In this manner uranium-235 was enriched from its normal 0.7% to weapons grade of more than 90%."(Grolier 5) This Uranium was then transported to "the Los Alamos, N.

Genital Mutilation In Sudan :: essays research papers fc

The lights are dim and the voices quiet. Tension fills the room where Nafisa, a six-year-old Sudanese girl lies on a bed in the corner. Her aunt, 25-year-old Zeinab, watches protectively as her niece undergoes the procedure now known as female genital mutilation (FGM), holderly called female circumcision. In this procedure, performed without anaesthesia, a girls external sexual organs are partly or totally cut away. Zeinab does not approve. For the past year she has been tryingto persuade her mother and sister to spare Nafisa from the procedure. She lost the battle with her family, but she give stayat her nieces side. She watches Nafisa lying quietly, brave and confused, and remembers her own experience. Zeinab underwent the procedure twice. At six years old she hadthe more moderate form of FGM, called Sunni, in which the applications programme of the clitoris is removed. When she was 15 the older women of her family insisted she have the Pharaonic form, which involves removalof the entire clitoris and the labia and stitching together of the vulva, leaving just a small plenty for elimination of urine and menstrual blood. Zeinab still remembers the pain, the face of the women performing the procedure, the sound of her flesh being cut. She also remembers bleeding and being sick for weeks. This extreme form of FGM has been performed on 82 per cent of Sudanese women, according to a recent survey. Today, 85 to 114 million girls and women in more than 30 countries have been subjected to FGM. Female genital mutilation has long been performed to ensure chaste or monogamous behaviour by suppressing female sexuality. It is commonly -- although erroneously -- attributed to religious edict. In fact, neither Islam nor Christianity officially sanctionsit. FGM is dangerous. It is estimated that ferocious traditional birth attendants perform two thirds of the procedures. They typically have limited knowledge of health and hygiene and often use inadequately cleaned tradi tional instruments. ramp effects of FGM include trauma, bleeding and haemorrhage pain, stress and shock infections (which can be fatal) painful and punishing sexual relations obstructed labour and difficult childbirth and psychological trauma. The effects can last a lifetime. The practice was declared illegal in the Sudan in 1941, but that did little to stop it. close to 90 per cent of northern Sudanese women have had it done. Why does FGM continue? In surveys, the most common reason

Monday, May 27, 2019

Hate Crime :: essays research papers

On October tenth of 2004, eleven Christians were arrested for street witnessing on a public sidewalk during a gay pride event. Charges were dropped against six of them, but four adults and one juvenile faced serious charges under Philadelphias hate crime laws. These five people were charged with criminal conspiracy, ethnic intimidation, reckless endangerment, and inciting a riot. Each person, if convicted, faced 47 years in prison and a $90,000 fine. The state of Pennsylvania tardily added ethnic intimidation to its hate crime law on December 5, 2002. Under this section preaching for the Bible is now considered hate speech and is wicked in a public forum. Philadelphia prosecutor Charles Ehrlich attacked the protesters as hateful and claimed that preaching from the Bible about homosexuality is considered fighting words that can be verboten from the public square as an incitement to a riot.In title 18 of the first amendment, it is clearly proven that these Christians did break the law. I do twin with what they were preaching. It is unfortunate that Christians are now being arrested for sharing the gospel in public. The bible clearly states that as Christians, we are supposed to share the good news. In the book of Mathew, chapter nine, verse thirty-five says,Jesus went through all the towns and villages, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the good news of the kingdom and healing every unhealthiness and sickness.As Christians, we are supposed to be like Jesus in every aspect of our lives, and these five Christians were doing what they were called to do. However, by doing this, they were breaking the law and in doing so, they requisite to be held accountable. OFFENSE DEFINED.--A PERSON COMMITS THE OFFENSE OF ETHNIC INTIMIDATION IF, WITH MALICIOUS INTENTION TOWARD THE ACTUAL OR PERCEIVED RACE, COLOR, RELIGION OR, NATIONAL ORIGIN, ANCESTRY, MENTAL OR PHYSICAL DISABILITY, SEXUAL ORIENTATION, GENDER OR GENDER IDENTITY OF AN other(a) INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP OF I NDIVIDUALS, HE COMMITS AN OFFENSE UNDER ANY OTHER PROVISION OF THIS ARTICLE.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Media Analysis †The Apprentice Essay

The purpose of the introduction to The Apprentice is to introduce the programme to its instinct of hearing the main aim is to gain TV ratings so the primary four minutes are crucial in drawing in the listenings attention and fashioning the video display interesting and appealing to the target audience so they continue to watch.thither are many visual codes in the opening of the programme. The contestants are first introduced and the camera is watching them enter the city of London. All of the contestants are shown near or on some form of transport, this could symbolise how the best people give been chosen from either over the country to come to one business orientated and busy city to compete for one life changing tour. Furthermore, the journey is metaphorically amplified by the contestants carrying suitcases and walking forwards, this creates a sense of them embarking on a life changing journey together with only one outcome. This is anchored by the intercourse the contest ants use, for example I am a winner this shows to the audience that this is going to be an intense battle to find the winner.The contestants are seen walking in a group together over a bridge, this could connote the bridge to successes and they are walking over to the other side onerous to gain the success that they want, which once over again signifies a journey and the camera movement used here is tracking the whole group so the audience know that they will be sideline them on the journey.The programme is set in London which is pragmatically suggesting this is the centre of business in the United Kingdom and thats why they have gathered here. In the clip the audience are shown how busy the city is by the amount of transport and people, this could suggest that there is rivalry between the contestants and also competition in the business world. The scene is set at dawn this connotes the idea that business never rests in London and that the business world is awake and ready.Ther e are also visual codes displayed by the characters that anchor business firstly all of the contestants are dressed smart, in suits or skirt suits. They also all carry some form of briefcase which is stereotypically something that a business person has with them all the time. When the characters speak they pragmatically and stereotypically show that they are business minded people I am the best I am what Alan Sugar is looking for are examples of what are said and these are expressed in a very strong, arrogant and argumentative way.In the opening there is a point where the audience are shown Alan Sugar on top of a large building in the central of London looking out to the city which suggests his military unit, this is anchored by the camera shot used here which is a low angle, this connotes the idea that he is a powerful man and the centre of attention, the use of the camera movement crab also anchors his power as it arcs around Alan Sugar so we are inclined a 360 degree view of h im and the city.Sound is used to anchor Alan Sugars power throughout the soundtrack and underscoring music builds up into a dramatic latent hostility when he is talking to the contestants and when the camera is focusing on him. Furthermore, the iconic dialogue youre fired is repeated more than once in the scene, something which is significant to his eccentric and something the audience recognise. This is reinforced with the crop shop of Alan Sugars hand pointing towards the fired contestant, in addition to this the crop shot also creates asense of mystery as the audience are left unaware of the contestant that has been fired and who he is pointing at, so they are left wanting to watch the show with the suspense that all but one contestant will be fired and they can try judge who he will fire at heart the programme.The contestants are portrayed as weak when they are around Alan Sugar there are lots of reaction shots used to show their expressions and reactions to the tasks and wha t Alan Sugar says to them, this shows his power over them and signifies the meaning of the programme and his role and the contestants role. The underscoring music also adjusts to the mood and atmosphere and is anchorage for what the contestants are portraying themselves as, at the beginning when the contestants are trying to display power then the music is louder and faster but when they are portrayed as more vulnerable facing Alan Sugar the music is quieter and poky and towards the end of the opening fades out into the beginning of the programme.I think that the opening scene of The Apprentice is very successful in fulfilling its purpose. I feel that it engages the audience by the visual codes and they all create a strong anchorage for what the programme is about. There are many different camera shots, angles and movements used which again draws in the audiences attention and makes them want to carry on watching the programme. Finally, the mix of the soundtrack and underscoring mu sic with the dialogue allow the opening to intensify pragmatism and give an insight into the programme and also the contestants and Alan Sugar.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization

Globalization is such a commonly used name in the twentiethcentury. It simply means that the world has become integrated economically, socially, politically and culturally through the advances of technology, shipping and communication. It is undeniable to say that globalization has resulted in both positive and ostracise effects which must be addressed accordingly. To begin with, globalization has contributed to the worlds economies in many beneficial ways. The advances in science and technology turn over allowed businesses to easily cross over territorial boundary lines.Consequently, companies tend to become more productive, competitive thereby raising quality of goods, services and the worlds living standard. Secondly, some(prenominal) companies from the more developed countries have already ventured to establish foreign operations or branches to take advantage of the low cost of labor in the poorer countries. This benign of business activity will provide more influx of cash o r investment funds into the less developed countries. However, one cannot deny the negative effects which havederived from globalization.One crucial social aspect is the risk and danger of epidemic diseases which can easily be spread as the mode transportation is easier and faster in todays advance society. This is evidenced in the recent birds flu disease which has infected most Asian countries over a short date frame. As large corporations invest or take over many off shore businesses, a modern form of colonization will a uniform evolve which may pose certain power pressure on the local governments of the less developed countries.Unemployment rates in the more developed regions like Europe may also escalate as corporations choose to outsource cheaper work force from Asian countries. In conclusion. I like to reiterate that globalization is inevitable and we must urge individuals, companies and governments to use a more balanced approach by taking appropriate steps to deal with ma tters relating to the financial or economical gains verses the social, political or ecological concerns of the world.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Man’s Existence Defined by Being and Nothing Essay

I. IntroductionWhat makes a someone alive? Should humans be gear upd simply by a persons biological and physical ability to move and breathe? Is innovation proven by the spotless physical presence of a living person?Philosophers down the ages have advanced some(prenominal) theories of how human existence is defined. Some have advance theories base on the establishment of being after the fulfillment of a lifes purpose. Others opined that a persons fear or experience of apprehension and postcodeness defines existence. Some that believe that it is a combination of these yin/yang forces that define human existence.II. Discussions on Existence, organism and NothingnessPeople are defined as human beings in Biology. It is what separates humans as a specie from animals. But shouldnt the word human be enough? What is the significance of the verb be? some(prenominal) theories have been advanced to define the tangible things angiotensin converting enzyme sees in life but as philosoph er Martin Heidegger noticed, they have forgotten to ask what to be really is (Philipse. 1998. p18). The foreland of what defines human existence has intrigued philosophers over the ages. Theories have gone beyond the basic qualification of life as the simple and obvious ability to move and breathe. existential philosophy however, puts forward the more abstract concepts of defining ones being as influenced by boredom, freedom, commitment and alienation (Warnock.1970.p.4). It separates the human existence into being and nothing. What makes a human a being?According to Heidegger, a de-constructional view of existence is necessary to include the essence of humans being as hostile to the classical thought of the obvious and therefore unexplored being (Philipse, 1998.p.3).One of Heideggers main influences, Edmund Huserll (Grimsley.1960.p.37) said that philosophy should be described in the linguistic context of human experience and goals. People do and live in accordance with one plan or goal. Heidegger modified this with his theory of care, (Cochrane. 1956. p112) which, simply stated office that a persons priorities or what he or she considers authorised defines their existence. For him, it is the motivation and the individual needs that define a persons existence and thus shapes them into what they are.In his work Being and Time, Heidegger created the representation Dasein of the individual that seeks to answer the question as to why he exists. He states the Dasein is thrown into a population of possibilities and responsibilities, and to account for his existence, the Dasein must take responsibility for all these possibilities (Cochrane, 1956 p. 136).Another philosopher who advances the notion of a reality governed by consciousness, Rene Descartes in his Meditations on First Philosophy states that in human existence, the just thing that cannot be doubted is consciousness. Reality can have many illusions, but a human beings consciousness is eternal which ther efore makes it the only truth (Snooks, 1998.p 26).The famed German philosopher George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Stace,1955. p. 44) summed it up in the statement the rational alone is real which presented the idea that everything can and will only be expressed in rational categories His various works reflected methods predominantly rooted in logic According to Hegel, the degree of comprehension of concepts is only circumscribed or expanded by the standards of knowledge a person possesses and the level of society he belongs to (Stace,1955. p. 46) .The ideas of existentialism contradict this. The definition of a persons existence is not dependent on rational thinking but rather their individual beings in the world they were born in. Reality in interview to ones existence is subjective. In Sartres Being and Nothingness, he defines the actuality of mans ideal of completion as the fulfillment of state of Being while nothingness is the failure or lack of this actuality (Schilpp. 1997.p.48 )Like Hegel, Sartre also used the concepts of Being in terms of in itself, for others, and for and in itself. Unlike Hegel however who defined these as organizational thought processes and logic in the individual, Sartre stated these terms with definitions done to identify and qualify the subjective and objective facets of human existence.Regarded as the Father of Existentialism, and one of Hegels greatest critics, Soren Kierkegaard (Malantschuk, 2003.p.11 )was a Danish philosopher who proposed that it is an individuals feelings such as dread and anxiety that lead to making choices that define a persons life. Kierkegaard believed that the difference between an individuals self-perception of being and nothingness stems from the individuality of a person and that includes emotions and passions. A persons existence therefore, is brought about by his fears.He cites a parallel of faith and atheism. In his theories that were viewed as anti-organized religion, Kierkegaard states that for a person to be able to make a leap of faith, one must first have doubt. Otherwise, one may not be able to differentiate faith from everyday emotions. In the resembling way, Being cannot exist without Nothing and vice-versa (Malantschuk, 2003.p.90)Kierkegaard also advanced the paradoxical theory of the Concept of Dread (Ussher, 1968.p. 52). According to Kierkegaards concept of Dread, it is only when one has experient total reverse that one can recognize and experience life and living.Only by being a sacrificial Isaac would he recognise himself for the pricy of Abraham and no miracle (he knew in the end) would intervene. (Ussher, 1968.p. 27).It is not unusual in todays times to hear the maxim You never know what you have unless youve lost it. The misery or anxiety at the thought of losing something makes one realize how much value they have truly assigned to something. The thought of this is echoed in German diarist Helmut Kuhns Encounter with Nothingness An Essay on Existentiali sm (1949) The question of existence is urged upon us chiefly by our interest. We raise it when we care for the existence or the nonexistence of something. When darkness closes down, we do get excited about the existence of light (Kuhn, 1949)Immanuel Kant presented a style of inquiry that takes to consideration the physiological and empirical facets of a persons state of Being. Kant believed that an introspective approach was necessary for one to understand and make sense of ones own being (Kant, 1965).Sartre, one of the strongest critics of Kantian theory argues that the notion that human emotions are insignificant and occasional situations that occur of an individuals behavior is unacceptable.Moreover, emotion must not be considered as a set of empirical facts gained through introspection or as a corporeal phenomenon , but rather as an organized piddle of human existence (Schilpp, 1997.p.13)As a persons existence and state of Being are subjective, so is the definition of nothingne ss.The lexicon meaning of the word nothing is given as 1 not any thing no thing 2 no part 3 one of no interest, value, or consequenceIn philosophy however, despite the many theories that sought to define existence, the definition of the word nothing seems to be universal. It simply means failure to disclose a state of Being through lack of fulfillment and failure at the attainment of purposes or goals.III. SummaryThe human being and existence is a complex and paradoxical concept. All the concepts are true in a sense, but were never really complete in describing or pinpointing the meaning of life. varied schools of thought range from describing human existence in a mathematical sense then evolving into the more abstract consideration of complex human emotions. undefiled philosophy in its rational and logical basis, says it is Mind over matter.Sartre, Hegel and Heideggers philosophies are summed up in the End justifies the Means.Kierkegaards neurotic view of the existence as a r esult of anxiety and dread is summed up in You dont know what you have until youve lost it.IV. ConclusionGiven the many points of view advanced, there remains a constant, and that is recognition of the human free will. It is the will that makes a choice that rational, experiential or pessimistic, influences the End that defines and justifies a persons existence.A persons experience of past and present in addition to his perception of what the future could be are subjective. The significance heap place on certain things is also subjective. Reactions are subjective. Life is subjective. One can choose to define existence in the manner of different philosophies. However, it is important to note that these schools of thought are not rules that encompass every persons experience of life.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Developed Through Pips Visit To Satis Essay

Essay Title Discuss How The Theme Of Class Is Developed Through wrap ups construe To Satis ( abounding) House Charles Dickens expertly created bildungsroman about a youthful common boys desire to be a gentleman develops the theme of separate and its social importance throughout the story. Dickens aim was to show the corruption in English society at the time and he displays it through daubs, the main character, visits to Satis house a house owned by a mysterious, middle severalizeed woman with a beautiful daughter that is bemused by billets appearance and depress class and therefore abuses him for it.Dickens portraits the upper class as evil, selfish villains in the novel and is on the lower class peoples side, always revealing the disgraceful riches the upper class owned while the poor got poorer. Great Expectations is a social commentary that gives a quick opinion on society. slash is a classic example of the lowest level of a working class child hes an orphan, lives a mis erable life with his obnoxious and beastly sister, and gets abused by every one and only(a) that sees him. Universal struggle, this is how Pip describes life as a desolate young boy. Pipstrives to do his dream fantasy a gleaming, bright gentleman and to do that he must overcome many things. Firstly, Pip can barely read or write, I struggled through the alphabet as if it had been a bramble bush, this just adds emphasis on the true lowness of Pips class as entirely the rich got educated while the poor got overlooked. In fact, when the poor did get educated, it was of a very low standard with the teachers sleeping in class and cramp, heat up rooms, with very little ventilation, much the contrary for the lavish, learning system accustomed to the rich and upper-class youths.Also, Pip is innumerate meaning he cant count, I fell among the thieves, the nine figures, this tells us that Pip is lacking basic life skills and must adapt to life without reading, writing and counting which adds to his struggle of dreaming to force a gentleman and gains sympathy off the reader because of his desperate situation. From pips first visit to Satis House, we realize the staggering difference between Pip and Miss Havishams child, Estella, and how their class and background affect their attitudes towards each other and their views on society and life over each.The setting of Satis House flabbergasts Pip so much, he can barely explain everything around him, satins, and lace, and silks all of white The description brings to mind a very rich, selfish and stagnant person which is how Dickens represents all the rich and upper-class people. Pip is confused of how to prepare himself for his first visit to Satis House, I was not at ease regarding the manner in which I should preface myself under that ladys roof. This shows that the poor scarcely get in contact with the rich and are bewildered with how to present themselves.On the other hand, Estella proudly calls Pip by the name boy a nd mocks his clothes which in turn makes Pip realise his lower class so he therefore begins to beak and pamper himself after the suffering. Dickens builds up tension by describing Satis House as unkept and decayed which is a reflection of Miss Havishams eccentric personality and its a bit bias to be honest, because all Dickens fantasies about the rich world evil, rude and a bit pale are fitted into one character especially and her eerie house.One time, Miss Havisham questions Pip in such a way at one point, that he gets scared out of his wits and his answers to her spiteful questions are all monosyllabic, who is it? Pip In essence, Dickens disrespect to the upper-class is such, that he represents them all in one lady that is so low, she bullys innocent little boys and makes them feel ashamed for who they are and evening makes Pip accept hes lower then her which one may argue is a good thing as it inspires Pip to greatness later on but is atrocious, giving that consideration is not all there is to life. Estella is the lady in the book.When she meets Pip, her presence with him clearly shows the enormous gap between their two respected classes. Of her first few linguistic process to Pip, she looks at his tatty state and says disgustingly, come here, boy. She judged him by his looks and clothes and instantly recognized his lower state and treats him like an animal and he follows reluctantly, falling for her looks, being a girl, beautiful and self-possessed. By being attractive, Estella has a power over Pip that she can allow herself to be rude and sly to him, yet he will still fancy her, ridicule him and hell still show respect, so Estella has the upper hand in all cases.Dickens use of resourcefulness glorifies Estella in every way as Pip is drawn to her, like a moth to the light, but in reality his desire to be good enough for Estella leads him to selfishness and being big-headed, just like the rest of the upper-class in Victorian England at the time, according to Dickens that is. Estella is very lucky, in the sense she has access to intellectual nourishment and wines while Pips struggling for bare bones with bread and water for snacks.Unfortunately, this was the case for everyone at the time it was rare for the lower-class to have luxuries even close to those of the rich and it all blatantly shows between the meetings of Pip and Estella. I wish my boots werent so thick nor my hands so coarse. This is the moment Pip feels ashamed of himself for the first time. He accepts defeat in a cowardly manner and is disappointed at life and why he, amongst others, is a common, miserable and poor, frail boy. He even calls himself ignorant and backwards, in his defeat, which is quite the contrary really until after visiting miss Havisham and being in her household.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Lexicology

HANDBOOK OF WORD-FORMATION Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic speculation VOLUME 64 Managing Editors Marcel den Dikken, City University of sweet York Liliane Haegeman, University of Lille Joan Maling, Brandeis University Editorial Board Guglielmo Cinque, University of Venice Carol Georgopoulos, University of Utah Jane Grimshaw, Rutgers University Michael Kenstowicz, mum Institute of Technology Hilda Koopman, University of California, Los Angeles Howard Lasnik, University of Maryland Alec Marantz, Massachu sterilizets Institute of Technology John J.McCarthy, University of Massachu specializets, Amherst Ian Roberts, University of Cambridge The titles published in this series ar listed at the end of this volume. HANDBOOK OF WORD-FORMATION Edited by PAVOL STEKAUER Pre o University, Pre ov, Slovakia ov e and ROCHELLE LIEBER University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, U. S. A. A C. I. P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN-10 ISBN-13 ISBN -10 ISBN-10 ISBN-13 ISBN-13 1-4020-3597-7 (PB) 978-1-4020-3597-5 (PB) 1-4020-3595-0 (HB) 1-4020-3596-9 (e-book) 978-1-4020-3595-1 (HB) 978-1-4020-3596-8 (e-book) Published by Springer, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands. www. springeronline. com Printed on acid-free paper All Rights Reserved 2005 Springer No part of this fetch whitethorn be reproduced, stored in a retrieval governing body, or transmitted in whatsoever path or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or other(a)wise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifi forebodey for the purpose of universe entered and executed on a computer system, for max use by the purchaser of the work. Printed in the Netherlands. confine PREFACE CONTRIBUTORS vii 1 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY BASIC lyric 1. The nonion of the lingual sign 1. 1 turn up FOR THE MORPHEME-AS-SIGN POSITION IN SAUSSURES COURS 1. 2 EVIDENCE FOR THE WO RD-AS-SIGN POSITION IN SAUSSURES COURS Morpheme and battle cry 2. 1 CASE STUDY side of meat NOUN PLURAL FORMS (PART 1) 2. 2 CASE STUDY THE PERFECT PARTICIPLE FORMS OF ENGLISH VERBS 2. 3 CASE STUDY ENGLISH NOUN PLURAL FORMS (PART 2) 2. 4 COMPLEMENTARY dispersal AND flection VERSUS DERIVATION Morphemes since the 1960s 5 5 7 8 10 11 14 17 18 20 25 25 2. 3. ELLEN M. KAISSE WORD-FORMATION AND PHONOLOGY 1. o saveing vi 2.CONTENTS Effects of lexical category, morphological structure, and affix type on phonology 2. 1 EFFECTS OF LEXICAL CATEGORY AND OF morphological COMPLEXITY 2. 2 COHERING AND NON-COHERING AFFIXES raillery structure limited by the phonological form of the base of affixation Lexical phonology and sound structure and its ills More recent developments of lexical phonology and morphology How do related actors line affect each other? The cycle, transderivational t effects, paradigm uniformity and the like Do the cohering affixes f rm a coherent set? Split bases, SUBCAT WORD fo and ph unrivaledtics in morphology Conclusion 26 26 28 32 34 38 39 41 45 . 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. GREGORY STUMP WORD-FORMATION AND INFLECTIONAL sizable structure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The conceptual difference mingled with inflection and word-formation The inflectional categories of jell Pr featical criteria for distinguishing inflection from word-formation Practical criteria for distinguishing inflectional periphrases about alikeities between inflection and word-formation Complex interactions between inflection and word-formation Inflectional paradigms and word-formation paradigms 7. 1 PARADIGMS AND HEAD MARKING IN INFLECTION AND DERIVATION 7. 2 PARADIGMS AND BLOCKING IN INFLECTION AND DERIVATION 9 49 50 53 59 60 61 65 65 67 CONTENTS ANDREW SPENCER WORD-FORMATION AND SYNTAX 1. 2. base Lexical relatedness and sentence structure 2. 1 MORPHOTACTICS IN CLASSICAL US STRUCTURALISM 2. 2 MORPHOLOGY AS SYNTAX 2. 3 LEXICAL INTEGRITY syntactical phenomena inside wrangle Argument stru cture realization 4. 1 DEVERBAL MORPHOLOGY 4. 1. 1 Action nominals 4. 1. 2 Nominals de noning grammatical functions 4. 1. 3 -able adjectives 4. 2 SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDS AND NOUN internalisation hypothetic move closees to word formation Summary and afterwardword vii 73 73 74 74 74 78 82 83 83 83 87 88 88 89 93 99 3. 4. 5. 6.DIETER KASTOVSKY HANS MARCHAND AND THE MARCHANDEANS 1. 2. Introduction Hans Marchand 2. 1 metaphysical material 2. 2 SYNCHRONIC APPROACH 2. 3 pauperism 2. 4 MORPHONOLOGICAL ALTERNATIONS 2. 5 THE CONCEPT OF SYNTAGMA 2. 6 GENERATIVE-TRANSFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE 2. 7 ANALYSIS OF COMPOUNDS 2. 8 PRECURSOR OF LEXICALIST possible action 99 hundred 100 100 101 102 102 104 105 106 3. Klaus Hansen 107 3. 1 GENERAL 107 3. 2 WORD-FORMEDNESS VS. WORD-FORMATION 107 3. 3 WORD-FORMATION PATTERN VS. WORD-FORMATION TYPE108 3. 4 ONOMASIOLOGICAL APPROACH VS. SEMASIOLOGICAL APPROACH 109 viii 4. CONTENTS Herbert Ernst Brekle 4. GENERAL 4. 2 FRAMEWORK 4. 3 BREKLES MODEL 4. 4 PRODUC TION AND INTERPRETATION OF COMPOUNDS Leonhard Lipka 5. 1 GENERAL 5. 2 THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT Dieter Kastovsky 6. 1 GENERAL 6. 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 6. 3 WORD-FORMATION AT THE CROSSROADS OF MORPHOLOGY, SYNTAX, SEMANTICS, PRAGMATICS AND THE LEXICON Gabriele Stein (Lady Quirk) Conclusion 109 109 110 110 112 112 112 113 114 114 115 116 116 118 125 125 126 127 128 130 132 133 133 134 136 138 141 142 143 143 5. 6. 7. 8. TOM ROEPER CHOMSKYS REMARKS AND THE TRANSFORMATIONALIST theory 1. Nominalizations and Core Grammar 1. CORE CONTRAST 1. 2 TRANSFORMATIONS The Subject Enigma 2. 1 PASSIVE -ABILITY NOMINALIZATIONS 2. 2 -ING NOMINALIZATIONS Case Assignment 3. 1 COPING WITH EXCEPTIONS 3. 2 THEMATIC-BINDING thought-provoking Issues Aspectual Differentiation of Nominalization Affixes Where do Affixes Attach? Elaborated Phrase Structure and Nominalizations 6. 1 BARE NOMINALS PREDICTABLE RESTRICTIONS 6. 2 HIGH -ING 6. 3 ACCUSATIVE AND -ING NOMINALIZATIONS 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CONTENTS 7. Conclusion ix 144 SERGIO SCALISE AND EMILIANO GUEVARA THE LEXICALIST APPROACH TO WORD-FORMATION AND THE NOTION OF 147 THE LEXICON 1. . 3. 4. A definition A Brief History 2. 1 LEES (1960) The Lexicon Lexicalism 4. 1 HALLE (1973) 4. 2 ARONOFF (1976) 4. 2. 1The Word-based Hypothesis 4. 2. 2 Word-Formation Rules 4. 2. 3 productivity 4. 2. 4 Restrictions on WFRs 4. 2. 5 Stratal features 4. 2. 6 Restrictions on the output of WFRs 4. 2. 7 Conditions 4. 2. 8 Summary on Word-Formation Rules Some Major Issues 5. 1 STRONG AND WEAK LEXICALISM More on the Notion of Lexicon Lexicalism Today 7. 1 INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY 7. 2 SYNTACTIC MORPHOLOGY 7. 3 THE SYNTACTIC incorporation HYPOTHESIS 7. 4 WORD-FORMATION AS SYNTAX 7. DISTRIBUTED MORPHOLOGY Conclusion 147 148 150 151 153 153 157 157 158 159 159 161 162 162 166 166 170 171 173 174 176 176 178 180 181 189 5. 6. 7. 8. ROBERT BEARD AND MARK VOLPE LEXEME -MORPHEME BASE MORPHOLOGY 1. Introduction 189 x 2. CONTENTS The Three Basic Hypotheses of LMBM 2. 1 THE S EPARATION HYPOTHESIS 2. 2 THE UNITARY GRAMMATICAL FUNCTION HYPOTHESIS 2. 3 THE BASE RULE HYPOTHESIS Types of Lexical (L-) Derivation 3. 1 COMPETENCE GRAMMATICAL L-DERIVATION 3. 1. 1 Feature Value Switches 3. 1. 2 leanal Lexical-Derivation 3. 1. 3 Transposition 3. 1. Expressive Derivations Conclusion 189 one hundred ninety 191 192 194 194 194 195 198 199 200 201 207 207 208 209 209 211 211 212 214 217 219 221 225 226 226 227 229 3. 4. Appendix PAVOL STEKAUER ONOMASIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO WORD-FORMATION 1. 2. 3. Introduction Methods of Onomasiological inquiry Theoretical approaches 3. 1 MILOS DOKULIL 3. 2 JAN HORECKY 3. 3 PAVOL STEKAUER 3. 3. 1 Word-formation as an independent component 3. 3. 2 The act of naming 3. 3. 3 Onomasiological Types 3. 3. 4 Conceptual (onomasiological) recategorization 3. 3. 5 An Onomasiological Approach to Productivity 3. . 6 Headedness 3. 3. 7 Summary 3. 4 BOGDAN SZYMANEK 3. 5 ANDREAS BLANK 3. 6 stopcock KOCH DAVID TUGGY COGNITIVE APPROACH TO WORD-FORMATI ON 233 1. Basic nonions of Cognitive grammar (CG) 1. 1 THE GRAMMAR OF A LANGUAGE UNDER CG 1. 2 LEXICON AND SYNTAX 233 233 235 CONTENTS 2. Schemas and prototypes 2. 1 SCHEMAS AND ELABORATIONS 2. 2 PARTIAL SCHEMATICITY AND THE ontogenesis OF SCHEMATIC NETWORKS 2. 3 PROTOTYPICALITY AND SALIENCE 2. 4 ACCESS TO THE STORE OF CONVENTIONAL KNOWLEDGE, INCLUDING NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES 2. 5 occasionization Schemas for word formation 3. 1 SCHEMAS FOR WORDS 3. SCHEMAS FOR clear IDENTIFIABLE WORD PIECES STEMS AND AFFIXES AND CONSTRUCTIONAL SCHEMAS M 3. 3 COMPLEX SEMANTIC AND PHONOLOGICAL POLES 3. 4 SCHEMAS FOR COMPOUNDS 3. 5 STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTIONS, CREATIVITY AND PRODUCTIVE USAGE 3. 6 SANCTION (OF VARIOUS KINDS) FROM COMPONENTS 3. 7 COMPONENTS AND PATTERNS FOR THE WHOLE OVERLAPPING PATTERNS AND MULTIPLE ANALYSES R A 3. 8 CONSTITUENCY Overview of other issues 4. 1 VALENCE 4. 2 THE MORPHOLOGY-SYNTAX BOUNDARY 4. 3 INFLECTION VS. DERIVATION Whats special about face word formation? Conclusion I mplications of accounting for morphology by schemas i 235 235 236 238 238 239 240 240 244 246 248 251 254 256 257 258 258 259 260 261 262 267 267 268 268 268 270 271 272 274 274 276 3. 4. 5. 6. WOLFGANG U. DRESSLER WORD-FORMATION IN NATURAL MORPHOLOGY 1. 2. Introduction Universal, system-independent morphological naturalness 2. 1 tasteS 2. 2 PREFERENCE FOR ICONICITY 2. 3 INDEXICALITY PREFERENCES 2. 4 PREFERENCE FOR MORPHOSEMANTIC TRANSPARENCY 2. 5 PREFERENCE FOR MORPHOTACTIC TRANSPARENCY 2. 6 PREFERENCE FOR BIUNIQUENESS 2. 7 FIGURE-GROUND PREFERENCES 2. 8 PREFERENCE FOR BINARITY xii CONTENTS 2. 9 OPTIMAL SHAPE OF UNITS 2. 0 ALTERNATIVE NATURALNESS PARAMETERS 2. 11 PREDICTIONS AND CONFLICTS 276 276 277 278 279 279 280 281 285 285 285 286 287 287 290 294 298 298 301 303 304 307 311 315 315 316 317 3. 4. Typological adequacy System-dependent naturalness 4. 1 SYSTEM-ADEQUACY 4. 2 DYNAMIC VS. STATIC MORPHOLOGY 4. 3 UNIVERSAL VS. TYPOLOGICAL VS. SYSTEM-DEPENDENT NATURALNESS PETER ACKEMA AND AD NEELEMAN WORD-FORMATION IN OPTIMALITY THEORY 1. Introduction 1. 1 OPTIMALITY THEORY 1. 2 COMPETITION IN MORPHOLOGY Competition between diametrical morphemes 2. 1 THE BASIC CASE 2. 2 HAPLOLOGY 2. MARKEDNESS Competition between components 3. 1 ELSEWHERE CASES 3. 2 COMPETITION amongst MODULES THAT DOES NOT INVOLVE THE ELSEWHERE PRINCIPLE Competition between different morpheme orders 4. 1 CONFLICTS BETWEEN LINEAR CORRESPONDENCE AND TEMPLATIC REQUIREMENTS 4. 2 CONFLICTS BETWEEN LINEAR CORRESPONDENCE AND OTHER CORRESPONDENCE CONSTRAINTS Conclusion 2. 3. 4. 5. LAURIE BAUER PRODUCTIVITY THEORIES 1. 2. 3. Introduction Pre-generative theories of productivity Schultink (1961) CONTENTS 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Zimmer (1964) Aronoff Natural Morphology Kiparsky (1982) Van Marle (1985) Corbin (1987) iii 318 318 321 322 323 324 324 326 327 328 330 332 335 335 335 335 336 336 339 340 340 340 341 344 345 347 348 349 349 10. Baayen 11. Plag (1999) 12. convert (2000) 13. Bauer (2001) 14. Some thread s 15. Conclusion FRANZ RAINER CONSTRAINTS ON PRODUCTIVITY 1. 2. Introduction Universal constraints 2. 1 CONSTRAINTS SUPPOSEDLY LOCATED AT UG 2. 2 PROCESSING CONSTRAINTS 2. 2. 1 barricade 2. 2. 2 Complexity mean(a)d Ordering 2. 2. 3 Productivity, frequency and length of bases Language-specific constraints 3. 1 LEVEL ORDERING 3. 2 AFFIX-SPECIFIC RESTRICTIONS 3. 2. 1 Phonology 3. 2. 2 Morphology 3. 2. 3 sentence structure 3. 2. 4 Argument structure 3. 2. Semantics 3. 2. 6 Pragmatics and Socio linguistics 3. xiv 4. Final remarks PREFACE 349 PETER HOHENHAUS LEXICALIZATION AND I INSTITUTIONALIZATION TITUTIONALIZATION 1. 2. Introduction Lexicalization 2. 1 LEXICALIZATION IN A DIACHRONIC SENSE 2. 2 LEXICALIZATION IN A SYNCHRONIC SENSE LISTING/LISTEDNESS 2. 3 THE LEXICON AND THEORIES OF WORD-FORMATION Institutionalization 3. 1 speech 3. 2 IDEAL AND REAL SPEAKERS AND THE actors line COMMUNITY 3. 3 DE-INSTITUTIONALIZATION THE END OF A WORDS LIFE Problems 4. 1 NONCE-FORMATIONS AND NEOLOGIS MS 4. 2 (NON-)LEXICALIZABILITY 4. 3 WHAT IS IN THE (MENTAL) LEXICON AND HOW DOES IT GET THERE? . 4 freakish & PLAYFUL FORMATIONS, ANALOGY, FADS, AND NEW DEVELOPMENTS 4. 5 LEXICALIZATION BEYOND WORDS 353 353 353 353 356 357 359 359 360 362 363 363 365 367 369 370 375 375 375 376 378 379 379 383 390 391 393 400 402 3. 4. ROCHELLE LIEBER ENGLISH WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES 1. 2. Introduction Compounding 2. 1 DETERMINING WHAT COUNTS AS A COMPOUND 2. 2 ROOT COMPOUNDING 2. 3 SYNTHETIC COMPOUNDING 2. 4 STRUCTURE AND INTERPRETATION Derivation 3. 1 PREFIXATION 3. 1. 1 Negative prefixes (un-, in-, non-, de-, dis-) 3. 1. 2 Locational prefixes 3. 1. 3 laic and aspectual prefixes 3. 1. Quantitative prefixes 3. CONTENTS 3. 1. 5 Verbal prefixes 3. 2 SUFFIXATION 3. 2. 1 Personal nouns 3. 2. 2 Abstract nouns 3. 2. 3 Verb-forming suffixes 3. 2. 4 Adjective-forming suffixes 3. 2. 5 Collectives 3. 3 shutdown 4. 5. Conversion Conclusion xv 402 403 403 406 410 413 417 418 418 422 429 429 430 431 BOGDAN S ZYMANEK THE LATEST TRENDS IN ENGLISH WORD-FORMATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction Derivational neologisms Analogical formations, local analogies Changes in the relative signifi derrierece of types of word-formation processes 431 Secretion of reinvigorated affixes Lexicalisation of affixes 435 436Changes in the productivity, relative productivity and scope of individual 436 affixes Semantics changes in formative functions 438 Trends in the form of complex nomenclature 441 9. 1 CHOICE OF RIVAL AFFIXES geomorphologic DOUBLETS 441 9. 2 PHONOLOGICAL FORM STRESS 443 449 459 465 SUBJECT INDEX NAME INDEX LANGUAGE INDEX PREFACE Following years of complete or partial neglect of issues concerning word formation (by which we mean primarily derivation, compounding, and conversion), the year 1960 marked a revival near might even verbalize a resurrection of this important field of linguistic study.While written in completely different theoretical frameworks (structuralist vs. tra nsformationalist), from completely different perspectives, and with different objectives, both Marchands Categories and Types of Present-Day incline Word-Formation in Europe and Lees Grammar of English Nominalizations instigated systematic search in the field. As a result, a large number of seminal works emerged over the contiguous decades, making the scope of wordt formation research broader and deeper, thus contri besidesing to better understanding of this exciting bea of adult male speech communication.Parts of this development nonplus been captured in texts or review books (e. g. P. H. Matthews Morphology An Introduction to the Theory of Word-Structure (1974), Andrew Spencers Morphological Theory An Introduction to Word Structure in generative Grammar (1991), Francis Katambas Morphology (1993), r Spencer and Zwickys Handbook of Morphology (1998)), alone these books tend to talk over both inflectional and derivational morphology, and to do so mostly from the generative compass point of view.What seemed missing to us was a volume intended for advanced students and other researchers in linguistics which would trace the galore(postnominal) strands of study both generative and non-generative that turn over create from Marchands and Lees seminal works, on both sides of the Atlantic. The ambitions of this Handbook of Word-formation atomic number 18 four-fold 1. To map the state of the art in the field of word-formation. 2. To avoid a biased approach to word-formation by presenting different, plebeianly complementary, frameworks within which research into wordformation has taken carry. vii xviii 3. 4. PREFACE To present the specific topics from the perspective of experts who defy signifi droptly contri only ifed to the respective topics discussed. To style specific all(prenominal)y at individual English word formation processes and review some of the developments that have taken place since Marchands comprehensive treatment forty five years a go. Thus, the Handbook provides the reader with the state of the art in the study of k word formation (with a special view to English word formation) at the eginning of the third millennium. The Handbook is intended to kick in the reader a clear idea of the k large number of issues examined within word-formation, the different methods and approaches employ, and an ever-growing number of tasks to be disposed of in future research. At the comparable time, it gives bear witness of the great theoretical achievements and the vitality of this field that has become a fully fledged linguistic discipline. We wish to express our gratitude to all the contributors to the Handbook. The editors CONTRIBUTORSPeter Ackema is lector in linguistics at the University of Edinburgh. He has worked extensively on issues regarding the morphology-syntax interface, on which he has published ii books, Issues in Morphosyntax (Amsterdam John Benjamins, 1999), and Beyond Morphology (Oxford Oxford Universit y Press, 2004, co-authored with Ad Neeleman). He has also published on a wide range of syntaxinternal and morphology-internal topics. Laurie Bauer holds a personal death chair in philology at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.He has published widely on international varieties of English, especially New Zealand English, and on aspects of morphology, including English Word-formation (Cambridge University Press, 1983), Morphological Productivity (Cambridge University Press, 2001), Introducing Linguistic Morphology (Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn, 2003), A Glossary of Morphology (Edinburgh University Press, 2004). Robert Beard received his PhD in Slavic linguistics from the University of Michigan and taught for 35 years at Bucknell University.In 2000 he retired as the Ruth Everett Sierzega prof of Linguistics at Bucknell to found the web-based company of language products and services, yourDictionary. com, where he is currently CEO. He is the author of The Indo-Europe an Lexicon (Amsterdam NorthHolland, 1981) and Lexeme-Morpheme Base Morphology (New York SUNY Press, 1995). Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy is Professor in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He is the author of Allomorphy in Inflexion (London Croom Helm, 1987), Current Morphology (London and New York Routledge, 1992) and An Introduction to English Morphology (EdinburghEdinburgh University Press, 2002). He is also interested in language evolution, and has published The Origins of Complex Language An Inquiry into the Evolutionary Beginnings of Sentences, Syllables and Truth (Oxford OUP, 1999). 1 2 CONTRIBUTORS Wolfgang Dressler is Professor of linguistics, Head of the Department of r Linguisics at the University of Vienna and of the Commission for Linguistics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. He is the author of Morphonology (Ann Arbor Karoma Press, 1985) and Morphopragmatics (with Lavinia Merlini Barbaresi) (Berlin Mouton de Gruyter, 1994).Emilian o Guevara is lecturer of General Linguistics at the University of Bologna and is member of the Mor-Bo reserach group at the Department of Foreign languages in Bologna. His publications include V-Compounding in Dutch and Italian (Cuadernos de Linguistica, Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset, 1-21 (with S. Scalise) and Selection in compounding and derivation (to depend) (with S. m Scalise and A. Bisetto). Peter Hohenhaus is lecturer in modern linguistics at the University of Nottingham (UK).He received his PhD in English Linguistics from the University of Hamburg and has published on standardization and purism, humorology, computer-mediated communication as well as English and German word-formation, in particular nonce word-formation, including the volume Ad-hoc-Wortbildung Terminologie, Typologie und Theorie kreativer Wortbildung im Englischen (Frankfurt, Bern and so on Lang, 1996). Ellen M. Kaisse is Professor of Linguistics, University of Washington, Seattle. Her main field s of research include morphology-phonology and syntaxphonology interfaces, intonation, historical phonology, and Spanish phonology.She is an author of Connected speech the interaction of syntax and phonology (Orlando t academician Press, 1985), Studies in Lexical Phonology (ed. with S. Hargus, Orlando y Academic Press, 1993), Palatal vowels, glides, and consonants in Argentinian Spanish (with J. Harris) (Phonology 16, 1999, 117-190), The long fall an intonational melody of Argentinian Spanish (In Features and interfaces in day-dream, ed. by Herschensohn, Mallen and Zagona, 2001, 147-160), and Sympathy meets Argentinian Spanish (In The nature of the word essays in honor of Paul Kiparsky, ed. by K. Hanson and S. Inkelas, MIT Press, in press).Dieter Kastovsky is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Vienna and Director of the Center for Translation Studies. His main fields of interest include English morphology and word-formation (synchronic and diachronic), semantics , floor of linguistics, and language typology. He is the author of quondam(a) English Deverbal Substantives Derived by Means of a Zero Morpheme (Esslingen/N. Langer, 1968), Wortbildung und Semantik (Tubingen/Dusseldorf k Francke/Bagel, 1982), and more than 80 articles on English morphology and wordformation (synchronic and diachronic), semantics, history of linguistics, and language typology.Rochelle Lieber is Professor of English at the University of New Hampshire. Her publications include Morphology and Lexical Semantics HANDBOOK OF WORD-FORMATION 3 (Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2004), Deconstructing Morphology (Chicago University of Chicago Press 1992), and An Integrated Theory of Autosegmental Processes (New York SUNY Press 1987), as well as numerous articles on various aspects of word formation and the interfaces between morphology and syntax, and morphology and phonology. Ad Neeleman is Reader in Linguistics at University College London.His main research interests a re case theory, the syntactic encoding of thematic dependencies, and the interaction between syntax and syntax-external systems. His main publications include Complex Predicates (1993), Flexible Syntax (1999, with Fred Weerman), Beyond Morphology (Oxford Oxford University Press 2004, with Peter Ackema), as well as articles in Linguistic Inquiry, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, and Yearbook of Morphology. Franz Rainer is Professor of Romance languages at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration.He is the author of Spanische Wortbildungslehre (Tubingen Niemeyer, 1993) and co-editor (with Maria Grossmann) of La formazione delle parole in italiano (Tubingen Niemeyer, 2004), both of these publications being comprehensive treatments of the word-formation in the respective languages. gobbler Roeper, Professor of Linguistics at the University of Massachusetts, has written widely on morphology and language acquisiton, including compounds, nominalizations, impli cit arguments, and derivationial morphology.In the field of language aquisition, he is also Managing Editor of Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics (Kluwer), a Founding editor of Language Acquisition (Erlbaum), and also the author of Understanding and Producing Speech (London Fontana, g 1983, co-authored with Ed Matthei), Parameter Setting (Dordrecht Reidel, 1987, with E. Williams), Theoretical Issues in Language Acquisition (Hillsdale Erlbaum, 1992, with H. Goodluck and J. Weissenborn), and the forthcoming The Prism of Grammar (MIT Press). Sergio Scalise is Professor of General Linguistics at the University of Bologna. He is the editor of the journal Lingue e Linguaggio.His pulications include Generative Morphology (Dordrecht Foris, 1984), Morfologia (Bologna Il Mulino, 1994), and Le lingue e il Linguaggio (Bologna Il Mulino, 2001 (with Giorgio Graffi)). Andrew Spencer is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Language and Linguistics at the University of Essex. He has w orked on various problems of phonological and morphological theory. In addition to English, his major language area is Slavic. He is the author of Morphological Theory (Oxford Blackwells, 1991) and co-editor (with Arnold Zwicky) of the Handbook of Morphology (Oxford Blackwells, 1998). CONTRIBUTORS Pavol Stekauer is Professor of English linguistics in the Department of British and American Studies, Presov University, Slovakia. His research has focused on an onomasiological approach to word-formation and on the history of research into word-formation. He is the author of A Theory of Conversion in English (Frankfurt am Main Peter Lang, 1996), An Onomasiological Theory of English Word-Formation (Amsterdam/Philadelphia John Benjamins, 1998)), and English Word-Formation. A History of Research (1960-1995).Tubingen Gunter Narr, 2000), and the forthcoming Meaning Predictability in Word-Formation (Amsterdam/Philadelphia John Benjamins) Gregory T. Stump is Professor of English and Linguistics at the University of Kentucky. His research has focused on the development of Paradigm Function Morphology. He is the author of The Semantic Variability of Absolute Constructions (Dordrecht Reidel, 1985), Inflectional Morphology A Theory of Paradigm Structure (Cambridge CUP, 2001). He is currently serving as an Associate Editor of Language and as a Consulting Editor for Yearbook of Morphology.Bogdan Szymanek is Professor of English linguistics, Head of the Department of Modern English, Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. His major research interests include morphology and its interfaces with other grammatical components, lexicology, English and Slavic languages. He is the author of Categories and categorization in morphology (RW KUL Lublin, 1988) and d Introduction to morphological analytic thinking (PWN Warsaw, 1998 (3rd ed. )). David Tuggy has worked in Mexico with the Summer Institute of Linguistics since 1970.His main areas of interest include Nahuatl, Cognitive f grammar, t ranslation, lexicography, and inadvertent blends and other bloopers. He is an author of The transitivity-related morphology of Tetelcingo Nahuatl An exploration in Space grammar (UCSD Doctoral dissertation, 1981), The affix-stem r musical note A Cognitive grammar analysis of data from Orizaba Nahuatl (Cognitive Linguistics 3/3, 237-300), The thing is is that people talk that way. The principal is is why? (In E. Casad (ed. ). 1995.Cognitive linguistics in the redwoods the expansion of a new paradigm in linguistics. Berlin Mouton de Gruyter, 713-752. ), and Abrelatas and scarecrow nouns Exocentric verb-noun compounds as illustrations of basic principles of Cognitive grammar ( (International diary of English Studies (2004) III, 25-61). Mark Volpe is a Ph. D candidate at SUNY at Stony Brook expecting to defend his dissertation on Japanese morphology in early spring 2005. He is currently a visiting lecturer in the Department of Humanities at Mie National University in Tsu, Japan.He has published singly in Lingua and Snippets and has coauthored with Paolo Acquaviva, Mark Aronoff and Robert Beard. BASIC TERMINOLOGY ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY 1. THE NOTION OF THE LINGUISTIC SIGN In this introductory chapter I volition discuss the notions morpheme and sign in affinity to word-formation. The starting-point will be Ferdinand de de de Saussures notion sign (signe) (Saussure 1973), which since the early twentieth cytosine has influenced enormously how linguists have analysed delivery and parts of lyric poem as grammatical social units.There will be no tidy resultant, partly because Saussure himself was vague on crucial points, and partly because among contemporary linguistic theorists on that point is little agreement about even the most fundamental aspects of how word-formation should be analysed and what limitinology should be used in describing it. But I hope that this chapter will alert readers to some of the main risks of misunderstanding that they are s ure to encounter later. 1 A handbook of English syntax in the twenty- jump century would not be likely to begin with a discussion of Saussure. Why then does it make sense for a handbook on word-formation to do so?There are two precedents. The first is that syntax is centrally concerned not with individual signs in Saussures sense but with combinations of signs. That makes it sound as if word-formation, by contrast, is concerned not with combinations of signs but only when with individual signs. As to whether that implication is attractive or not, readers can in due crease form their own opinions. For the present, it is enough to say that, in the opinion of most but not all linguists, the way in which meaningful elements are have in syntax is different from how they are combined in complex actors line.The second reason has to do with Saussures distinction between language as social blueprint (langue) and language as ( utterance (parole). Each language as langue belongs to a c ommunity of speakers and, because it is a social convention, individuals have no control over it. On the other hand, language as parole is something that individual speakers have control over it consists of the use that individuals freely make of their langue in the sentences and phrases that they utter.Hence, because syntax is concerned with the structure of sentences and phrases, Saussure seems to have considered the study of syntax as belonging to the study of parole, not langue (the exception being those sentences or phrases that are idioms or cliches and which therefore belong to langue because they are conventional kinda than freely constructed). So, because his focus was on langue rather than parole, Saussure had little to say about syntax. 1 I will use Saussure in this chapter as shorthand for Saussures view as presented in the Cours de linguistique generale.The Cours is a posthumous digest based on notes of various series of lectures that Saussure delivered over a number o f years. Apparent inconsistencies in the Cours may be due to developments in Saussures thinking over time or faulty note-taking on the part of the compilers or both. Nevertheless, it is the Cours as a whole that has influenced subsequent linguists, and on that al-Qaida it is fair to discuss it as if it were created by one author as a single coherent work. 5 Stekauer P. and R. Lieber (eds. ), Handbook of Word-Formation, 523. 2005 Springer. Printed in the Netherlands. 6 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY Saussure introduced his notion sign with a famous example a diagram consisting of an ellipse, the upper half containing a picture of a tree and the scorn half containing the Latin word arbor tree (Saussure Cours, part 1, chapter 1 99 r 67). 2 The upper half of the diagram is meant to represent a concept, or what the sign signifies (its signifie), while the lower half represents the unit of expression in Latin that signifies it (the signifiant).As Saussure acknowledges, the term sign in its n ormal habit seems closer to the signifiant than the signifie, and at first one is t inclined to ask what the point is in distinguishing the signifiant from the sign as a t whole. Saussures answer lies largely in his view of how signs are related to each other. Signs (he says) do not function in isolation but rather have a value (valeur) as part of a system (part 2, chapter 4 155-69 110-20). Concepts (signifies) do not exist in the world indepently of language but only as components of the signs to which they belong.By this Saussure does not mean that (for example) trees have no real existence apart from language, but rather that the term for the concept tree will differ in valeur from one language to another depending on whether or not that r language has, for example, contrasting scathe for the concept bush (a broken tree) or the concept timber (wood from trees for use in building or furniture-making). 3 Each signifie has a wider or narrower scope, consort to how few or how man y are the related signs that its sign contrasts with.And with signifiants, too, what matters most is not the sounds or letters that compose them but their role in distinguishing one sign from another. Thus the noggin Greek verb forms ephen I was saying and esten I stood both have the very(prenominal) structure (a prefix e-, a root, and a suffix -n), but their valeur within their respective verbal paradigms is different ephen is an r imperfect tense form while esten is aorist. So far, so good, perhaps.The Latin word arbor and the English word tree are r simple words, not analysable into smaller meaningful parts, and each is in Saussures basis a sign. But consider the word unhelpfulness, which seems clearly to consist of four elements, un-, help, -ful and -ness, each of which contributes in a l innocent way to the meaning of the whole. upset also the words Londoner, Muscovite, Parisian, Roman, and Viennese, all meaning inhabitant of , and all consisting of a stem followed by a s uffix. What things count as signs here the whole words, or the elements composing them, or both?It is at this point that Saussures exposition becomes frustratingly unclear, as I will demonstrate presently. let us call these elements morphemes. This is consistent with the usage of Baudouin de Courtenay, the inventor of the term, who speaks of the unification of the concepts of root, affix, prefix, ending, and the like under the usual term, morpheme (Baudouin de Courtenay 1972 151) and defines it as that part of a word which is endowed with psychological autonomy and is for the very same reason not 2Because readers are likely to have access to Saussures Cours in various different editions and translations, I will give first a filename extension to the relevant part and chapter, then a page reference to the 1973 edition by Tullio de Mauro, and finally a page reference to the 1983 translation by Roy Harris. I quote passages from the Cours in the translation by Harris. I use Saussures original technical terms langue, parole, signifiant and signifie, for which no consistent English equivalents have become t established. 3 This illustration is mine, not Saussures, but is in the spirit ofSaussures discussion of how two English words sheep and mutton correspond to one French word mouton. BASIC TERMINOLOGY 7 further cleavable (1972 153). It is also consistent with efficacious definitions of the kind offered in introductory linguistics courses, where morphemes are characterised as individually meaningful units which are minimal in the sense that they are not divisible into smaller meaningful units. 4 The headland just posed now becomes Do morphemes count as signs, or do only words count, or both?Much of the divergence in how the term morpheme is used can be seen as due to implicit or explicit attempts to treat morphemes as signs, despite the difficulties that quickly arise when one does so. These are difficulties that Saussure never confronts, because the term morp heme never appears in the Cours. In Saussures defence, one can fairly plead that he could not be evaluate to cover every aspect of his notion of the sign in introductory lectures. Yet the question that I have just posed about morphemes is one that naturally arises almost as soon as the notion of the sign is introduced.A case can be made for attributing to Saussure two diametrically opposed positions relating to the role of signs in word-formation. I will call these the morpheme-as-sign position and the word-as-sign position. I will first present deduction from the Cours for morphemes as signs, then present evidence for words as signs. 1. 1 Evidence for the morpheme-as-sign position in Saussures Cours The distinction between langue and parole is far from the only important binary distinction introduced by Saussure in his Cours.Another is the distinction between syntagmatic relationships (involving elements in analog succession) and associative relationships (involving elements tha t contrast on a dimension of choice). 5 Elements that can be related syntagmatically include signs, and in particular the signifiants of signs, which are presented one after another so as to form a chain (part 1, chapter 1, segmentation 3 103 70). Chains of items that form syntagmatically related combinations are called syntagmas (syntagmes) (part 2, chapter 5 170-5 121-5). Some syntagmas have meanings that are conventionalised or idiomatic.This conventionalisation renders them part of langue. An example is the phrase prendre la mouche (literally to take the fly), which means to take offence (part 2, chapter 5, section 2 172 123). However, the great majority of phrases and sentences have meanings that are transparent, not idiomatic. As much(prenominal), they belong to parole, not to langue. As examples of syntagmas that belong to parole, Saussure cites contre tous against all, la vie humaine human life, Dieu est bon God is good, and sil fait beau temps, nous sortirons if its fin e, well go out (part 2, chapter 5, section 1 170 121).These phrases and sentences do not constitute signs as wholes rather, t 4 5 This resembles Bloomfields classic definition a linguistic form which bears no partial phoneticsemantic resemblance to any other form (1933 161). One implication of the specification partial is that two morphemes may display total phonetic identity (so as to be homonyms) or total semantic identity (so as to be synonyms). In the technical terminology of linguistics, the term paradigmatic, promoted by Louis Hjelmslev (1961), has come to replace associative as the counterpart of syntagmatic.But I will stick to Saussures term in this chapter. 8 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY they are made up of smaller signs, namely the words or idiomatic expressions that they contain. On this basis, the question Do morphemes count as signs? can be refined as Can morphemes as such compose syntagmas that belong to parole rather than to langue? At first sight, the answer is yes. In the very same passage where Saussure gives the examples just quoted, he cites the word re-lire to read again.Saussure uses the hyphen to draw attention to the divisibility of this word into two elements, re- again and lire to read. The word relire thus has a meaning that is as transparent as that of unhelpfulness. Here, at least, it seems clear that Saussure intends us to analyse the morpheme re- as a sign, forming part of a syntagma that belongs to parole rather than to langue. Further evidence for this morpheme-as-sign position seems to be supplied by Saussures discussion of suffixes such as -ment and -eux, and of home in signs.The t words enseignement instruction, enseigner to teach and enseignons we teach t r clearly share what Saussure calls a common element. Similarly, the suffixes -ment and -eux are common elements in the set of words enseignement, armement armament and changement change (noun), and in the set desir-eux desirous t (from desir desire), chaleur-eux warm (fr om chaleur warmth), and peur-eux r r fearful (from peur fear) (part 2, chapter 5, section 3 173-5 123-5). 6 These r common elements are morphemes, in terms of our rough-and-ready definition.Are they also signs, in Saussures sense? Saussure hints at the answer yes when he discusses a set of instances where overt suffixes contrast with zero. In Czech, the noun zena woman illustrates a widespread pattern in which the genitive plural form zen is differentiated from the other case-number forms, such as the accusative singular zenu and the nominative plural zeny, simply by the absence of a suffix. Here the genitive plural has as its exponent zero or the sign zero (part 1, chapter 3, section 3 123-4 86).Surely then (one is inclined to think) the accusative singular suffix -u and the nominative plural suffix -y, both being morphemes in our sense, must have at least as much right as zero has to count as signs. It is tempting to conclude that, in complex words, Saussure recognises individual morphemes as signs provided that the complex word is regularly formed and semantically transparent. A reader of the Cours who looks for explicit confirmation of this tempting conclusion will be frustrated, however.Many complex words other than re-lire and forms of zena are discussed, but always it is in contexts that emphasise the associative relationships of the word as a whole, rather than the syntagmatic relationship between the morphemes that compose it. These discussions point away from morphemes as signs and towards words as signs, therefore. 1. 2 Evidence for the word-as-sign position in Saussures Cours Closely parallel in structure to relire is the verb de-faire to undo, also discussed by Saussure (part 2, chapter 6, section 2 177-8 127-8). Again he uses a hyphen to draw attention to its internal structure.The meaning of defaire, at least in many 6 The inconsistency in the use of hyphens here is Saussures. BASIC TERMINOLOGY 9 contexts, seems just as transparent as that of re lire, on the basis of the meanings of faire to do and de- implying reversal. Indeed, Saussure draws our attention to this transparency by citing the parallel formations decoller to unstick, deplacer to r r remove (literally to un-place) and decoudre to unsew. However, comparing the discussion of relire, we find an important difference in emphasis here. With relire, the emphasis was on syntagmatic relationships.With defaire, however, the emphasis is on the associative relationships that it enters into not just with decoller, deplacer and decoudre but also with faire itself, refaire to redo, and contrefaire to caricature. Now, it is clear that contrefaire is something of an outsider in this list, because its meaning cannot be predicted from that of its elements faire and contre against. One might therefore have expected Saussure to say something like this Because of its unpredictable meaning, the syntagma contrefaire is conventionalised and belongs as a unitary sign to langue, so that contre and faire do not count as signs in this context.However, the meanings of the other complex words I have cited are predictable, so they are examples of syntagmas that belong to parole, and in them the morphemes re- and de-, as well as the verb stems that pursue them, are signs. But what Saussure actually says is almost the opposite of that. The word defaire is decomposable into smaller units, he says, only to the extent that is surrounded by those other forms (decoller, refaire and so on) on the axis of association. Moreover, a word such as desireux is a product, a combination of interdependent elements, their value i. . valeur deriving solely from their mutual contributions within a larger unit (part 2, chapter 6, section 1 176 126). Recall that valeur is a property of signs, dependent on their place within the sign system as a r whole. Saussures words here imply, therefore, that in desireux, the smaller unit or element -eux, though clearly identifiable, is not a sign. Sau ssure hints that even the root desir, in the context of this word, does not count as a sign either, although it clearly does so when it appears as a word on its own. We are thus left with a contradiction.The word relire is cited in a context that invites us to treat it as a unit of parole, not langue, composed of signs, just like the sentence If its fine, well go out. On the other hand, the discussion surrounding defaire insists on its status as a unit of langue, a sign as a whole, composed of elements or smaller units that are not signs. On the basis of my presentation so far, the evidence for the two positions (morpheme-as-sign and word-as-sign) may seem fairly evenly balanced. But there are solid reasons to think that the word-as-sign position more closely reflects Saussures true view.Consider the French number word dix-neuf nineteen (literally f ten-nine). In such a transparent compound as this, the two morphemes dix and neuf, being words (and hence signs) on their own, must sur ely still count as signs f (one may think). But no, says Saussure dix-neuf does not contain parts that are signs f any more than vingt twenty does (part 2, chapter 6, section 3 181 130). The t difference between dix-neuf and vingt, as he presents it, involves a new distinction f t between signs that are motivated and signs that are unmotivated.The sign vingt is unmotivated in that it is purely arbitrary the sounds (or letters) that make it up give f no clue to its meaning. The sign dix-neuf however, contains subunits which give clues to its meaning that could hardly be stronger. Even so, according to Saussure, 10 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY dix-neuf is still a single sign on the same plane as vingt or neuf or soixante-dix f t f seventy (literally sixty-ten). It is the valeur of dix-neuf in the system of French r f number words that imposes on it the status of a unitary sign, despite its semantic transparency. Saussure might also have added that this transparency, real though it is, de pends on a convention that belongs to French langue, not parole the convention that concatenation of dix and neuf means ten plus nine, not ten times f nine or ten to the ninth power, for example. His neglect of this point reflects his general neglect of syntactic and syntagmatic convention. 7 Similarly, the English plural form ships is motivated because it recalls a whole series like flags, birds, books, etc. , while men and sheep are unmotivated because they recall no parallel cases.The plural suffix -(e)s is, in the communicatory world, among the first halfdozen morphemes that every beginning student of linguistics is introduced to. Yet for Saussure it does not count as sign it is merely a reason for classifying the words that it appears in (ships, flags etc. ) as relatively motivated signs rather than purely d arbitrary ones. There is thus a striking discrepancy between the word-centred approach to complex words, predominant in the work of the pioneer structuralist Saussure, and the morpheme-centred approach that (as we shall see) predominated among his structuralist successors.In section 2 I will outline the attractions and pitfalls of morpheme-centred approaches. 2. MORPHEME AND WORD Saussure value some of the difficulties inherent in using word as a technical term (part 2, chapter 2, section 3). Nevertheless, when illustrating his notion sign, he chose linguistic units that in ordinary usage would be classified as r r words, such as Latin arbor tree and French juger to judge (part 1, chapter 1, section 1 part 2, chapter 4, section 2).This may be largely because the languages from which he drew his examples were nearly all well-studied European languages with a long written history and a tradition of grammatical and lexical analysis in f terms of which the identification of words (in some sense) was uncontroversial. However, accompanying the theoretical developments in linguistics in the early twentieth century was an explosion in fieldwork on non-Indo- European languages, particularly in the Americas and Africa. In these languages, lacking a European-style tradition of grammatical description, identifying words as linguistic units often seemed problematic.In fact, there was a strong current of opinion according to which the word deserves no special status in linguistic description, and in particular no special status warranting a distinction between the internal structure of words (morphology) and the internal structure of phrases and sentences (syntax). As Malinowski put it, isolated words are in fact only linguistic figments, the products of an advanced linguistic analysis (Malinowski 1935 11, cited by Robins 1990 154). So what units are appropriate as tools for a preliminary linguistic analysis?It seemed natural to answer those units that are clearly indivisible grammatically and t 7 I owe this point to Harris (1987 132). BASIC TERMINOLOGY 11 lexically, or, in other words, units of the kind that we provisionally labelled morphe mes in section 1. Thus, despite Saussures leaning towards the word-assign position, the experience of fieldwork on languages unfamiliar to most European and American scholars imposed a preference for a version of the morpheme-as-sign position. Where, then, does the morpheme-as-sign position leads us?Let us recall first the Saussurean norm of what constitutes a signifiant a sequentially ordered string of sounds, such as Latin arbor ( goed arbor) or French y e (spelled juger), such that every unit of parole is analysable exhaustively as a string of signifiants (part 1, chapter 1, section 3). What we will observe is a temptation towards signs with signifiants that deviate progressively further from this norm. The analyses that I will discuss are based on an approach to morphemes that was expounded in particular by Zellig S. Harris (1942), Charles F.Hockett (1947), Bernard Bloch (1947) and Eugene A. Nida (1948). None of these explicitly espouses the morpheme-as-sign position, because none of them cites Saussure. However, the issues that they discuss can all be seen as prima facie difficulties for that position. The fact that all these references are clustered more than half a century ago reflects the electric switch of f morphology by syntax at the centre of grammatical theory-construction. Nevertheless, I will comment in section 3 on uses of the term morpheme since about 1960. 2. Case study English noun plural forms (part 1) f For Saussure, as we have seen, the -s suffix of flags and ships is not a sign but an element that renders those words relatively motivated, by contrast with men and sheep. Let us say instead that this -s suffix is indeed a sign, with the signifie plural. What is its signifiant? So far as English spelling is concerned, the answer is simple. When we turn to phonology, however, we encounter our first stumbling-block. In a conventional phonemic transcription for these two words, the suffix will appear in two different shapes, /z/ and /s/, (/ fl? , ps/), and there is yet a third shape, either / z/ or / z/, according to dialect, found in words such as roses, horses, churches and judges. 8 Must we then recognise three different signs with the same signifie? Such an analysis would place these three signs on a par with sets of synonyms such as courgettes and zucchini, or nearly and almost. That is hardly satisfactory, because it neglects the role of phonology in determining the complementary dispersion of the three shapes / z/ appears after strident coronal sounds, while elsewhere /z/ appears after voiced sounds and /s/after voiceless ones.It was in relation to patterns such as this that the term allomorph was first introduced in morphology. The intended parallel with the notions phoneme and allophone is evident. Just as sounds that are phonetically similar and in 8 In my dialect, the third shape is / z/, so that taxes sounds the same as taxis, but roses sounds different from Rosas. For many speakers of other dialects, the homophony pattern is the other way round. The examples that I will discuss fit my own dialect, but similar examples can easily be constructed to t make the same point for speakers with the other homophony pattern. 2 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY complementary distribution count as allophones of one phoneme, so individually meaningful units that are not divisible into smaller meaningful units, provided that they are alike and in complementary distribution, count as allomorphs of one morpheme. And just as it is the allophones of a phoneme that get pronounced, rather than the phoneme itself, a morpheme is likewise not pronounced directly, but represented in the speech chain by whichever of its allomorphs is appropriate for the context.This applies even to morphemes that have the same shape in all contexts, because there is no reason in principle why a morpheme should not have only one allomorph, just as a phoneme may have only one allophone. Notice, however, that that phrase individually meaningful units that are not divisible into smaller meaningful units is lifted from my provisional definition of morpheme in section 1. It seems, then, that our exploration of the morpheme-assign position has led us already to a dilemma.If the units / z/, /z/ and /s/ are l Saussurean signs, just like the units / n/ (un-), /help/ (help), /f l/ (-ful) and /n s/ (-ness) that served to introduce the morpheme notion in section 1, then we must concede that the units that deserve sign status, as an alternative to words, are not after all morphemes but allomorphs of morphemes. 9 Furthermore, if / z/, /z/ and /s/ are all signifiants of signs whose signifie is plural, the morpheme that they all belong to seems somehow superfluous from the point of view of the Saussurean t sign, constituting neither a signifiant nor a signifie.On the other hand, if we wish to continue to say that it is morphemes that are signs, rather than allomorphs, we must depart from the Saussurean doctrine that a signifi ant is a linearly ordered string t within the speech chain (/ z/, for example), and say instead that it is, or may be, a set d of linearly ordered strings in complementary distribution (/ z/, /z/ and /s/, in this instance). The fact that the distribution of these allomorphs is phonologically conditioned may suggest an escape from this dilemma.If the choice between the three allomorphs is determined purely by constraints of English phonology, then perhaps we can say that, in phonological terms at least (although not phonetic), we really are dealing with only one string within the speech chain, not three. If so, the problem of quaternary signifiants disappears, and the plural -s suffix conforms to the norm for a Saussurean sign. The stumbling-block is not quite so easily surmounted, however. English phonological constraints do not supply a conclusive verdict on which allomorph is appropriate in all contexts.There are many contexts where more than one of the three allomorphs is phonol ogically admissible, and some contexts where all three are. Consider the noun pen /pen/. Its plural form is /penz/, complying with the generalisation that the voiced form of the suffix appears after voiced sounds (other than coronal stridents). But this is not because the alternative suffix shapes consequence bad phonotactic combinations. Both /pens/ and / pen z/ are phonologically wellformed, and indeed both exist as words (pence and pennies). So something more than pure ( phonotactics is at work in the choice between the three allomorphs.Only in terms of a phonological theory more sophisticated than any available in Saussures time (for 9 This is the view defended by Me uk (1993-2000). BASIC TERMINOLOGY 13 example, contemporary Optimality Theory) can we motivate a single phonological underlier for all three. Around the middle of the twentieth century, problems such as the one we have just encountered were typically handled by positing a level of analysis in some degree distinct fr om both phonology and morphology, called morphophonology (sometimes abbreviated to morphonology) or morphophonemics.The terms morphophonology and morphophonological are sometimes used to mean simply (pertaining to) the interface between morphology and phonology. However, morphophonemics has a more specific sense, implying a unit called a morphophoneme. In this instance, one might posit a morphophoneme /Z/ (say), clear phonologically as / z/, /z/ or /s/, according to the context. 10 This allows us to posit a single signifiant underlying / z/, /z/ and /s/, but at the cost (again) of t recognising a signifiant which departs from Saussures norm in that it is not t pronounceable directly.The morphophoneme /Z/, as just described, is realised by allomorphs that are distributed on a phonological basis. But complementary distribution may be based on grammar rather than phonology. English nouns such as married woman, loaf and bath supply f f f an illustration of this. In the singular, they e nd in a voiceless fricative /waif/, /louf/, / /ba /. In the plural, however, their stems end in a voiced fricative (/waiv/, /louv/, /ba /). (This difference between the singular and plural stems is reflected orthographically in wives and loaves, though not in paths. The allomorph of the plural suffix that accompanies them is therefore, as expected, the one that appears after voiced sounds /z/. Do the singular and plural stems therefore belong to distinct morphemes? To say so would be consistent with Baudouin de Courtenays usage. However, more recent linguists, influenced by the identity in meaning and the nearcomplete identity in sound in pairs such as has wife and wive-, have always treated them as allomorphs of one morpheme.Yet there is nothing phonological about the plural suffix that enforces the selection of the voiced-fricative allomorph. The noun wife itself can carry the possessive marker -s to yield a form wifes /waifs/ with a voiceless fricative in a phonologically wellfor med cluster. Moreover, not all nouns whose stems end in voiceless fricatives exhibit this utter in the plural for example, it does not occur in the plural forms fifes, oafs or breaths.So the voicing is restricted both lexically (it occurs in some nouns only) and grammatically (it occurs only when the plural suffix /Z/ follows). Some morphologists have handled this by positing morphophonemes such as /F/ and / /, units that are realised as a voiced phoneme in the plural and a voiceless one in the singular (Harris 1942). These nouns 10 The convention of using capital letters to represent morphophonemes was quite widespread in the mid twentieth century (see e. g. Harris 1942). But capital letters were also used to represent a purely phonological notion, the archiphoneme.An archiphoneme is a unit that replaces two or more phonemes in a context where the contrast between them is unavailable, as for example in German the m contrast between /t/ and /d/ is unavailable in syllable codas. The t that appears in codas in German was often give tongue to to realise not /t/, which would imply a contrast with /d/, but an archiphoneme /T/, t d implying no such contrast. It is important not to be misled by notation into confusing t morphophonemes with archiphonemes. 14 ANDREW CARSTAIRS-MCCARTHY an then be represented morphophonologically (rather than phonologically) as /waiF/, /louF/ and /ba /. The morphophoneme can be seen as a device which enables a morpheme to be t analysed as having a single signifiant (and thus as constituting a single Saussurean sign) even when in terms of its phonology it seems necessary to recognise multiple allomorphs and hence multiple signifiants a possibility that Saussure does not allow for. But is the morphophoneme device capable of treatment all multipleallomorph patterns satisfactorily? The answer is no, as I will demonstrate in the next subsections. . 2 Case study the perfect participial forms of English verbs I use perfect participle to refe r to the form in which the lexical verb appears when accompanied by the auxiliary have, as in I have waited, I have played, I have swum. The regular English perfect participle suffix -(e)d has three shapes, /t/, /d/ and d 11 / d/. These are distributed in a fashion closely parallel to the allomorphs of the noun plural suffix / d/ appears after coronal plosives, while elsewhere /d/ appears after voiced sounds and /t/ after voiceless ones.But, just as with the noun plural suffix, phonology alone does not always guarantee the correct choice of suffix. For d t example, /k? n d/, /k? nd/ and /k? nt/ are all phonologically possible words and indeed actual words canid member of the subgroup of mammals to which wolves d and dogs belong, canned contained in a can and cant hypocrisy. These suffix d t shapes therefore illustrate the same stumbling-block and the same dilemma as the three shapes of the plural suffix.One way of handling this, as with the plural suffix, is to posit a morphophonem e (say, /D/), realised as /t/, /d/ or / d/, according to the phonological context. However, the perfect participle exhibits complications, one of which is not paralleled in noun plurals. Some verbs have a perfect participle form with the suffix t d /t/ (orthographically -t rather than -ed) which appears even where /d/ would be expected, because the last sound of the verb stem is voiced, or where / d/ would be expected, because what precedes is a coronal plosive.Examples of these orthographic-t verbs are build (perfect participle built), bend (bent), feel (felt), keep d t d t l t (kept), spell (spelt), lose (lost), teach (taught), and buy (bought). Corresponding to t l t t t each of these it is possible to find a verb with a similar stem shape but whose perfect participle is formed with /t/, /d/ or / d/ according to the regular pattern (1) Orthographic-t verbs Base entire participle build built bend bent feel felt Regular verbs Base gild tend peel Perfect participle luxurious tende d eeled 11 In many dialects other than mine, the third allomorph is not / d/ but / d/. This does not affect my d d argument, however. BASIC TERMINOLOGY 15 seeped face liftingd felled oozed bleached lied keep leave spell lose teach buy kept left spelt lost taught bought seep heave fell ooze bleach lie As is clear, a further characteristic of orthographic-t verbs is that they nearly t always display a stem form that differs from the base or present-tense stem. What immediately concerns us is the suffix, however.Is it or is it not a distinct morpheme from the regular /t/ (spelt -ed) which is in complementary distribution with / d/ and d /d/? If we answer yes, we implicitly claim that the fact that /t/ is a common allomorph of the -ed morpheme as well as the sole allomorph of the -t morpheme is d t a mere coincidence. But, just as with wife and wive-, it goes against the grain to posit two distinct morphemes with the same meaning and such similar shapes. Thus the consensus in analyses of English verb morphology is that orthographic-t in an allomorph of the same morpheme that regular /t/, /d/ and / d/ belon

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Mckesson Corporation: Competitive Environment Trends and Business Model Assessment

McKesson Corporation Competitive surroundings Trends and backing seat Assessment U07a1, DB8004 Strategic Thinking and Innovation, Section 01 McKesson Corp Competitive Environment Trends and Business Model Assessment McKesson Corporation is largest health-care provider in the United States as of 2011 it ranked as the third largest company in the state of atomic number 20 where the company is headquartered. On the Fortune 500 list McKesson is ranked 15 (Fortune 500, 2011), McKesson consisted of several Strategic Business Units (SBUs).McKessons SBUs are divided into devil primary categories Distribution Solutions and Technology Solutions. The Distribution Solutions service all 50 states and deliver pharmaceuticals to institutional providers such as hospitals and health care systems and similarly distributes to retail pharmacies physician offices, surgery centers, long-term care facilities, and home care military controles. McKesson Canada, which is a part of McKesson, is a lead ing distributor in Mexico via its equity holding in Nadro. McKesson Distribution Solutions consist of the following SBUs (McKesson, n. . ) McKesson Medical-Surgical McKesson Patient Relationship Solutions McKesson Pharmaceutical McKesson Pharmacy Systems McKesson Specialty Care Solutions Moore Medical Plasma and BioLogics Zee Medical McKesson Technology Solutions consists of software, operate and consulting to hospitals, automation, imaging centers, physician offices, home health care agencies, and payors. The Technology-Solutions of McKesson Provide an avenue to improve health care safety, manage revenue streams and resources, and reduce the cost and division of health care. McKesson Technology Solutions consist of the following SBUs (McKesson, n. d. ) McKesson Automation McKesson Health Solutions McKesson Provider Technologies RelayHealth McKesson is one of the most successful companies in its industry in the United States. From a strategic management and planning perspective Mc Kesson believe in unity within its divisions. Although the businesses are separate entities, there are some similarities in name and address to management and interface with the parent company.The focus on this paper will be on McKesson Medical-Surgical, which is a SBU of McKesson Distribution Solutions and the interface with the parent company McKesson Corporation. McKesson Medical-Surgical larboard with McKesson Company McKesson as a company believe in unity especially from a management perspective. This company has consistently acquired other companies and has successfully managed to lead unity within each SBU based on the management goals of the parent company. check to Raynor, (2007), McKesson has acquired approximately 75 companies since 1995 that have been aligned with or assimilated into our assorted business units. Our size of it and breadth of products and services fostered vari faculty in HR practices that diluted our efforts to become a more seamless peerless McKes son. Accordingly McKesson embarked on a serial publication of initiatives to standardize, improve and automate, where possible, its HR processes. Human Resources and Organization precaution Team McKesson created a aggroup of Human Resource and Organizational Effectiveness (OE) professionals in 2004.The focus of this squad was to develop best practices and im prove quality via a buy-in from all the business units. If a consensus is not met after voting on an issue, an 80 percent absolute majority vote is required to move on (Raynor, 2007). military operation Management Team McKesson has created a weekly meeting for over a year for the Performance Management Design Team, which met virtually via conference call or web meeting. This team was also designed to focus on more unity within the company. The team was responsible for creating roles and responsibilities for performance management with emphasis on employee involvement.New fencency model was developed to redefine the rating scale. ePeformance was implemented via a PeopleSoft module and customized to support the newly created program and standardized performance practices (Raynor, 2007). McKesson Supply-Chain Management McKesson experience with its acute-care distribution business which is also the bread and butter in the more recent years for McKesson trenchant supply chain management has created success for various SBUs within the company. Supply chain management has been consistent within McKesson Corporation throughout all the SBUs.The accordance is the belief in building strong relationships with customers, exserting modernistic supply chain management products and services a creating innovative technology solutions. This consistency has also allowed the company to grow by adding new customers and increasing the business with their existing customers (Smith, 2006). Environmental Trends and Current Business Model McKesson Medical-Surgical is a spin-off of what used to be a drug wholesaler Gil Minor III created what is currently considered a powerhouse medical and surgical box which is where the market was trending (Smith, 2006).The company has taken prefer of creating convenience in the medical industry. Instead of snitching from a brick and mortar pharmacy, this company has taken advantage of selling via supply chain directly to its customers as well as on-line sales. From a strategic perspective the company has managed to create success in various ways. McKesson business units success is based on consistency, innovation, creativity, from one division to another. The company has taken medical supplies and services to a different a level.They are not the typical CVS or Eckerd Drug stock the company caters more to medical professionals, such as doctors, psychiatrists, but more to medical professions who have connections with hospitals. The company also provides medical supplies and services to most major hospitals as well as other medical institutions. The innovation o f the supply chain management, medical technologies, and the acquisitions and expansions has been successful for McKesson. A key element is also their ability to place the customer first.From a strategic management and planning perspective, below are some of the strategies used by McKesson to build and sustain success in their businesses. McKesson Strategies Incorporated This Millennium McKesson Technology and Information Technology & Other Changes Provide service physician practices that are connected with large hospital systems. Ongoing investing in technology has helped to differentiate McKesson in the market and has been a key element in its success Rarely pursue the individual physician market, since distributing to so legion(predicate) mall, individual offices is not our core competency. Continue to invest in creating innovative technology solutions that help improve the supply chain. draw out third-party-logistics services to sealed manufacturers, which have proven to be fruitful partnerships for both parties. QSight, an innovative inventory management program allows hospital professionals to manage clinical inventory with an easy-to-use Web-based platform Offer Integrated Service Center model to customers who might wish a different distribution model from traditional distribution. Acquisition and Expansion McKesson does not sell pharmaceuticals, over-the-counter pharmacy goods or medical surgical products directly to consumers Putting the customer first (Smith, 2006) McKesson business model relate to various environmental trends such as new and innovative technologies, with cutting edge improvements. Creation of a cutting-edge supply chain management which is currently an important trend with many companies that are trying to improve their bottom line and stream line their business(es).McKesson also provide supplies and services to home health care, and been very successful with acquisitions and expansions. The environmental trends support the current business models and have created success within the company as well as the various divisions. McKesson Business Model Success According to Acur & Bititci (2003), Todays globally competitive environment is complex, dynamic and unpredictable. To deal with this level of change, uncertainty and complexity companies need to develop and review their strategies almost interminably to stay ahead of the competition.Within this dynamic environment strategy management requires considerable resources and effort in terms of managerial time, with increasing pressures for innovation, k instantaneouslyledge sharing and co-operation. McKesson has proved that it is on the leading edge of technology in its industry the company is endlessly working toward new innovative ideas to create more efficient bump service much of the operation has been focus on supporting supplies from a global supply chain management perspective. McKesson is the longest-operating company currently in the health c are industries.The Medical-Surgical business unit of McKesson, similar to McKesson as a whole has been efficient with its strategic management and planning as well as successful as a SBU of McKesson. McKesson Annual Report as of Fiscal Year End March 31, 2011 shows the Medical-Surgical Distribution and a service has increase consecutively since 2009. McKesson Business Model Reinventions McKesson has reinvented several models within the last five years which have proven to been successful for the company as a whole and its strategic business units.Value earthly concern and strategies should be identified at each business unit within an organization to create an integrated approach to strategic management. Strategic objectives should be deployed and implemented. To compete from a global environment which is constantly changing the operational environment of a business strategy planning and management should be a continuous process, which will provide a closed-loop-control system whic h will facilitate management of the organization performance as a whole as well as individual business units (Acur, et al, 2003).McKesson has reinvented their supply-chain planning and management from business unit to business unit. New and innovative technologies placing the customer first expansion and acquisition is what McKesson has done repeatedly and been success as whole as well as with its individual business units. Key Resources and Generic Strategy Deployed Within the Business Model One of McKessons key resources within the Medical-Surgical Business Units is the uniqueness of its distribution supply chain.Unlike some pharmaceutical that companies focus on distribution to Walgreens, CVS, Walmart, and other similar parentage chains McKesson focus its supply chain on physician who have practices which are connected to large hospitals. McKesson supply-chain increase efficiencies from an operational perspective with its electronic say and purchasing system with the improved system the company can offer faster and fail customer service and deliveries. Another area in which McKesson offer uniqueness from a company and business unit perspective is managing their human resources to help impact the bottom line from a financial point of view.According to Raynor (2007), Performance management is increasingly regarded as a business process with real bottom-line impact, versus an HR program. Instead of being viewed as an HR program, performance management was now discussed in terms of business impact. Summary From management perspective sustainability is the ability to meet the needs of the present, yet not compromise the ability to meet succeeding(a) needs (Haugh & Talwar, 2010). McKesson Medical-Surgical Business Unit financial in the last few years has reflected financial sustainability.McKessons supply chain operation from a global perspective, the ability to continuously improve and create new technologies as well as new ways of doing business in the pharmaceutical industries has placed McKesson in a higher place many other pharmaceutical companies. The focus on human resource development with the creation of the Performance Management Design Team places McKesson and its business units preceding(prenominal) many companies today. All companies have various resources which play an active role in the performance of a company.However, most companies under-rate the importance of in my opinion their immanent customers. Employees play an active part in how a company performs financially. From a psychology perspective a happy person is can think better and perform better than one who is unhappy. Knowing how to manage ones human resource can improve how a company perform and can increase innovative ideas from employees. All other resources can only be a good as a companys human resource. References Acur, N. , & Bititci, U. (2003). Managing strategy through business processes.Production Planning & Control, 14(4), 309. Retrieved from EB SCOhost. Fortune 500 15. McKesson. (2011). Retrieved from http//money. cnn. com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2011/snapshots/2219. html Haugh, H. M. , & Talwar, A. (2010). How Do Corporations Embed Sustainability Across the Organization?. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(3), 384-396. doi10. 5465/AMLE. 2010. 53791822 Leveraging Business Intelligence for Revenue Improvement. (2008). hfm (Healthcare Financial Management), 62(8), 1-8. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.McKesson. (n. d. ) McKesson About 2BU Our 2BU Company Businesses 2BBusinesses. Retrieved August 20, 2011, from http//www. mckesson. com/en_us/McKesson. com/About%2BUs/Our%2BCompany/Our%2BBusinesses. html Raynor, E. (2007). Developing the Performance Culture at McKesson Medical-Surgical. Organization Development Journal, 25(4), P19-P25. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Smith, C. (2006). distributor CEO extends reach from hospital bedside to the home. Healthcare Purchasing News, 30(9), 16-21. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.