Thursday, October 31, 2019

Thomas Jefferson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Thomas Jefferson - Essay Example In his opinion, Alexander was different from his peers and would relieve the people from oppression. Jefferson believed that the monarchy system was a flawed system, but also understood that not all societies had reached the level required to sustain a republic. He had a great admiration for Tsar Alexander and even wrote to him constantly to commend him for his good character. He believed that Alexander was an enlightened monarch who would alleviate the suffering of his people. He even asked Alexander to mediate the ongoing dispute between the United States and Britain. The author of the ‘Three Emperors’ feels that it is because of this admiration for Alexander that Jefferson accepted the gift. In the parlor, President Jefferson placed the bust opposite the bust of Napoleon to show that the two were totally different. The author of this book feels that these two rulers were not different from each other, but just had different ways of doing the same thing. The author feels that the distinction should have been Jefferson and the European rulers. Jefferson was concerned with access to land and the international trade for the state to flourish. The author states that Jefferson was pragmatic in the means he used to achieve the success of his people, although he was guided by clear ideological visions. Jefferson used statecraft means to achieve his goals of protecting the interests of the people of America from a world that he believed was hostile. Jefferson’s way of leadership showed that he belonged to the idealist school of thought that believes that the policies that determine action in America, should be based on moral principles. Jefferson was able to achieve his long-term diplomatic success by using moral principles and a righteous tone. He envisioned a world where disputes between nations were resolved amicably without resulting in war. He used different means to attain whatever he wanted, but the results were consistent. I would hold

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Annual Report on Vodafone Statistics Project Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Annual Report on Vodafone - Statistics Project Example The dynamics within the global telecommunication and IT market have had a great influence on the company’s progress hence the variation in its sales, profits and income and an analysis of these results will help identify some of these effects and also their extent. The data we are analyzing was collected from the annual financial reports of Vodafone published between 1998 and 2013. The information on sales, cost and profits was collected and used for statistical analysis. In this study, the time period is the variable in all cases and the sales, profit and cost data acts as the observation. The data is collected from the internet which is a secondary source of information. It is quantitative data and can be described as being continuous in nature since its values can be counted. The data about all the three variables is collected on quarterly basis ranging from the second quarter on 31st march 1998 to the last quarter in 31st September 2013. Analysis of this data will involve application of the different measures of central tendency including mean, median and mode; the measures of spread and the measures of dispersion which will show how the data is distributed. A forecasting of the future trends will be applied on the results obtains and will be used to predict the future trends. The graph above shows that sales increase with time but the increase is not linear. The trend line is not a smooth curve hence showing that there is no strong relationship between the variables. The quarterly sales increase from left to right and from the graph; we can gather that the sales depreciate at some instance with the peak being reached within the most recent quarters. The graph above shows that the behavior across the time;ine is not uniformly trending hence the curve is not a smooth linear curve. The costs show a great range of fluctuation thereby resulting in a jagged

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Effect of the Internet on Global Cultures

Effect of the Internet on Global Cultures How has the spread of communications technology affected cultures around the world? Assess the extent to which the internet is a medium for western culture alone. Communications technology includes all electronic systems, such as telephones, telex, fax, radio, television, video, the internet and email that individuals and groups use to communicate with each other (BNET Business Directory, 2010). Culture involves a set of shared values, attitudes and beliefs. Cultures vary widely throughout the world, not just between countries but also within countries. Additionally, each broad culture contains ‘sub-cultures and these can include different religions or racial groups, as well as groups of people who simply share the same values, attitudes and beliefs such as in ‘youth sub culture. There is no doubt that modern-day, communications technology, and the consequent globalisation of the mass media, is helping to break down traditional cultural boundaries and creating what is commonly referred to as a ‘global culture. A global culture involves the spread of popular cultural icons, which often dilute or ride roughshod over local cultures threatening the vast cultural diversity in the world. A positive consequence of the inexorable advance of communications technology is that people around the world can become aware of, and share in, each others culture thus encouraging diversity and discouraging intolerance. Indeed, Nobel laureate Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio believes that if the communications technology in place today had existed at the time of Hitlers rise to power then his criminal plot may have been buried under the weight of worldwide, public ridicule and intolerance (Cooper A, 2009). A negative consequence of ‘globalisation is that Western, and predominantly American, culture has gradually imposed itself around the world, usually to the detriment of long-established, indigenous cultures. Jan Aart Scholte (2002), of Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation at the University of Warwick goes further by suggesting that creeping globalisation is creating a consumer-centred, single world culture that is focussed on all things American and the English language. Also, for those analysts who are opposed to globalisation, this type of global culture is accused of slowly killing diversity and tolerance as well as eradicating traditional ways of life. The internet is now in the forefront of this worldwide infiltration of culture by communications technology with nearly 7 billion people, 26% of the worlds population, having access to this medium (internetworldstats.com, 2010). The use of personal computers is a phenomenon that has its roots in Western culture with its inherent concepts of democracy and the freedom of communication between individuals although it has often appeared that communications technology has been largely responsible for the destruction of cultural values of all kinds, and not just those in the West (Barton D.T. et al, 2009). The internet, and in particular Social Networking Sites (SNS), are becoming increasingly popular. The Facebook SNS, for example, has over 350 million members worldwide (Facebook, 2009) and the market research company, Nielsen Online, reported in March 2009 that the Twitter social networking site had increased its membership by an astonishing 1,689% from February 2008 to February 2009 (Whitworth, D. 2009). However, despite growth in Asia, the usage of such sites still remains largely in the Western world and predominantly in America (techcrunchies.com, 2009). Also, although penetration of the internet generally is far greater in Western cultures than elsewhere, the actual number of internet users is higher, at 51% of all users worldwide, in non Western cultures. Indeed, the highest per centage of users, 42.6% (738.2 million individuals), is concentrated in Asia (internetworldstats.com, 2010). In conclusion, it can be seen that the spread of communications technology has affected cultures around the world with particular concerns over the proliferation of western style culture at the expense of other ways of life. However, not all of the cultural outcomes have been negative as evidenced by the positive impact of communications technology on cultural diversity and tolerance. Also, the perception that the internet is a medium for Western culture is true in terms of penetration but not in terms of the numbers of actual users. In addition, the misconception that the global dissemination of information can be controlled, and thereby the impact of communications technology on cultures could, if desired, be mitigated is a mistaken one in the view of globalisation gurus David Held and Andrew McGrew: ‘Many national controls over information have become ineffective. People everywhere are exposed to the values of other cultures as never before (Held and McGrew, 2003. Page 17). Reference List Barton D.T., Pope, J.W., and Stratton, J., 2009. ‘Computers, Telecommunications and Western Culture. . Accessed 13.02.10. BNET Business Directory, 2010. ‘Definition for: Communication Technology. . Accessed 13.02.10 Cooper A, 2009. ‘The Role of Technology in Promoting Tolerance. . Accessed 13.02.10 Facebook, 2009. . Accessed 13.02.10 Held, D. and McGrew, A., 2003. ‘The global transformations reader: an introduction to the globalization debate. Polity Press, Cambridge, Page 17. internetworldstats.com, 2010. ‘World Internet Users and Population Stats. . Accessed 13.02.10 Scholte, J. A., 2002. ‘Globalization – A Critical Introduction, Macmillan Press Limited, London. Page 23. techcrunchies.com, 2009. ‘Reach of Social Networks among Internet Users in Asia Pacific. . Accessed 13.02.10 Whitworth, D. 2009. BBC Newsbeat website. ‘Twitter growth explodes in a year. . Accessed 13.02.10

Friday, October 25, 2019

Henry James Washington Square :: Henry JamesWashington Square

Henry James'Washington Square Henry James' Washington Square is more than a simple novel with simple characters connected by a simple plot. There are more complex issues brought forth within the text besides a daughter heartbroken over her father's control and the departure of her money grubbing suitor. Yet only the simplistic issues and characterizations are brought forth in the critical article written by Elizabeth Hardwick. Within the pages of "On Washington Square," published in English 3230, Hardwick offers her readers the entire plot, including the ending of James' novel, without shedding new light on the text. She offers little interpretation of the material and only provides readers with the obvious. Hardwick explains the novel in such detail; one could almost use it as a Cliff Notes edition to the book. She uses what is said about Townsend to demonstrate that he wants nothing more than Catherine's money, yet she does not look close enough to realize that he is more complex than the information that the narrator provides ("On Washington Square" 26). The biggest fault in "On Washington Square" is that Hardwick does not recognize that the narrator of Washington Square provides the reader with only the information he wants to, leaving out details that could slant the story. There are several times in the novel when the narrator waffles on his accuracy using phrases like, "It might very well be†¦" in regards to describing Catherine's emotions (James 36). The narrator also leaves out information, which the reader assumes is unimportant, but cannot be sure, for the narrator has already shone that he does not guarantee to know the emotions of the characters, let alone the importance of their actions. For example, during a conversation between Morris and Catherine the narrator cuts off the conversation and states, "This is all that need be recorded of their conversation" (66). These statements and several like them show the narrator to be unreliable, yet Hardwick explains the novel through the narrator's eyes, portraying the inform ation as accurate.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Dyspepsia Chronic Or Recurrent Pain Health And Social Care Essay

Good nutrition is indispensable to good wellness throughout life, get downing with pre natal life and go oning through old age. An ancient ayurvedic adage denotes that â€Å" When diet is incorrect medical specialty is of no usage, when diet is right medical specialty is of no demand. Thus nutrition scientific discipline helps to advance human wellness and dainty disease. Aging is a natural evident fact in human life. The universe is expected to see an unprecedented ripening of the human population in states worldwide. It is likely that there are 416 million old people ( aged 60 old ages and supra ) around the Earth and by 2020 universe ‘s 11.9 % of population will be above 60 old ages ( Mr. Katz ) . In India besides the tendency is same, 7.5 % of the entire population is above 60 old ages. Harmonizing to the population appraisal of Tamil Nadu 2001, Male senior citizens within 60-69 twelvemonth of age was 5.35 % , 70-79 old ages of age was 2.49 % and 80 old ages of age and above was 86 % .Female senior citizens in 60-69 twelvemonth of age was 5.62 % , 70-79 old ages of age was 2.41 % .80 old ages and above was 0.9 % .When comparison with 1961, 1971, 1981 and 1991 twelvemonth nose count, there was addition in figure of senior citizens in Tamil Nadu. Harmonizing to the nose count of Madurai, the population aged 60 to 64 old ages predicted as 3.05 % , 65-69 twelvemonth projected as 2.10 % , 70 to74 old ages reported as 1.54 % , 75-79 twelvemonth predicted as 0.78 % and 80 + old ages anticipated as 0.88 % .It is estimated that the proportion of with this addition in the population of the senior citizens, societies in each state have to larn how to cover with a new set of wellness challenges. It is known that the senior citizens suffer from assorted types of jobs physically, psychologically, economically and socially. 45 % of old age people in India have chronic disease and disablements. There is a common expression by the natural healer that â€Å" All disease begins in the intestine. † Chiefly the increased prevalence of several common GI upsets occurs in the aged individual. Senior citizens normally experiences dysphasia, anorexia, indigestion, and colonic jobs. Among these indigestions holding the highest prevalence rate in India. Dyspepsia is a chronic or perennial hurting or uncomfortableness centered in the upper venters associated with a assortment of symptoms including station prandial comprehensiveness, bloating, flatulency, sickness, purging, pyrosis, early repletion and acerb regurgitation. Globally the incidence rate of indigestion is 7 to 45 % . The hazard factors of indigestion include nutrient, intoxicant, caffeine, indigestion and medicines contribute to dyspepsia. Chronic indigestion associated with stomachic malignant neoplastic disease, peptic ulcer, gastro esophageal reflux upset or may miss an identifiable cause. Dyspepsia can be categorized in to three ; those with dismay characteristics, those with no dismay characteristics but found to be positive for H.pylori ( unsophisticated indigestion ) and those in whom no causal organic disease has been identified ( functional indigestion ) . The common direction of indigestion includes lifestyle alterations, H.pylori therapy, and pharmacological di rection. Pharmacological direction includes alkalizers, prokinectics, acid suppressive cytoprotective and H.pylori obliteration agents. Indigestion can be managed in place by disposal of Ginger infusion. Ginger has been used as a traditional medical specialty in Asia and India since antediluvian times. Ginger infusion has a spicy inspiring gustatory sensation. It is used as a place redress for dyspepsia, sickness, cold and sore pharynxs. The characteristic olfactory properties and spirit of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingrone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about one to three per centum of the weight of fresh ginger. Volatile oils have the ability to chase away gas and cut down bloating in the bowel. Ginger is rich in such oils. It promotes the production of spit, which is called sialagogue. This action makes the ginger to excite the flow of gall from the saddle sore vesica which helps dyspepsia.Need FOR THE STUDYDyspepsia is non a disease but a group of symptoms that alert practician to disease of the upper gastro-intestinal piece of land. It is reported that 50 % of people with dyspep sia ego medicate utilizing alkalizers and low dosage H2 receptor adversaries, perchance with advice from a community druggist, but statistics show that every bit many as one in 4 people in Scotland with indigestion and one in 10 in England and Wales consult their general practician. Dyspepsia is one of the dominant upper gastro-intestinal jobs among elderly. It is non been shown to be associated with any addition in mortality. However, the impact of this status on patients and wellness attention services has been shown to be considerable. In a recent community study of several European and North American populations, 20 % of people with dyspeptic symptoms had consulted either primary attention doctors or hospital specializers ; more than 50 % of indigestion sick persons were on medicine most of the clip and about 30 % of dyspeptics reported taking yearss off work or schooling due to their symptoms. The prevalence rate of indigestion varies well between different populations. Dyspepsia is considered as a public wellness job in India. Nationwide study of indigestion conducted in 2006 shows that the prevalence of uninvestigated indigestion was 30.4 % . A study in urban Mumbai found that uninvestigated indigestion was more prevailing in grownups & gt ; 40 old ages of age. A study on cultural group of Indians found that the estimated rate of uninvestigated indigestion was 7.5 % . In an urban study in India found that no difference in dyspeptic symptoms occurred between vegetarians ( 29.1 % ) and meat-eaters ( 31.2 % ) . This shows that indigestion is a common job in India among senior citizens. A planetary position on the prevalence of uninvestigated indigestion varies between 7-45 % and functional indigestion has been noted to change between 11-29.2 % .The prevalence of lowest rate of uninvestigated indigestion was seen in Singapore ( 7-8 % ) , South East Asia, somewhat higher rates are seen amongst the Scandinavians ( 14.5 % and 18.4 % ) , a prevalence rates are of 23-25.8 % are seen in the US with populations in India ( 30.4 % ) and New Zealand ( 34.2 % ) holding the highest rate. Whereas the prevalence rate of functional indigestion in UK, Taiwan and US were 15 % , 23.8 % and 29.8 % severally. Hazard factors for indigestion have been shown to include females and underlying psychological perturbations, environmental/lifestyle wonts such as hapless economic position, smoke, increased caffeine consumption and consumption of non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs appear to be more relevant to un investigated indigestion.It is clear that indigestion is a common status globally, impacting most populations, irrespective of location. A survey on herbal medical specialty and gastro enteric system shows that ginger stimulates the flow of spit, gall and stomachic secernments. Ginger addition gastro enteric motility without impacting stomachic voidance. These findings appear to back up to the traditional usage of ginger in the intervention of GI uncomfortableness and bloating. A few surveies have proven the effects of ginger to the human organic structure. Although non yet every bit celebrated as other herbs, at least, ginger is going popular as alternate to other herbs. Among the celebrated herbal uses of ginger is as an infusion. The great benefits that ginger pull out can give are genuinely unmeasurable. There are many geriatric units in and around Madurai. The common issue identified among senior citizens is dyspepsia. Investigator felt that the ginger infusion for indigestion will assist to still and to advance better GI map among aged with low cost herbal medical specialty. In the visible radiation of the magnitude of the indigestion job and the deficiency of related surveies, the research worker has undertaken this survey to find effectivity of ginger infusion in cut downing badness of dyspeptic symptoms.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMAn experimental survey to measure the effectivity of ginger infusion on indigestion among senior citizens shacking in geriatric attention unit of Christian Mission Hospital, Madurai- 2010.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYTo measure the degree of indigestion among experimental and control group before administrating ginger infusion. To measure the degree of indigestion among experimental and control group after administrating ginger infusion. To happen out the difference in the degree of indigestion between experimental and control group. To happen the association between the degree of indigestion and socio demographic variables in the experimental group after administrating ginger infusion.RESEARCH HYPOTHESISH1: There will be a important difference between the degree of indigestion between the control group and experimental group with Ginger infusion. H2: There will be a important association between the station trial degree of dyspeptic symptoms and demographic variables.PremiseThe undermentioned premises were made in this survey. The senior citizens would co operate with research worker and would be willing to take part efficaciously in the survey. The points included in the tool would be equal and stand for the step of dyspeptic symptoms badness. Every senior citizen is alone and responds in a alone mode to depict the badness of dyspeptic symptoms. The Ginger infusion would be sufficient to still dyspeptic symptoms. Ginger infusion will be easy acceptable by the senior citizens.OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONEffectiveness of Ginger infusionIn this survey, it refers to the decrease in badness of dyspeptic symptoms as measured by the average difference in dyspepsia badness tonss utilizing 7-point Global overall symptoms of dyspepsia graduated table before and after disposal of Ginger infusion.Ginger infusionIn this survey, it refers to a liquid prepared by boiling peeled and grated A? tsp of fresh ginger in H2O constituted to 100 milliliter of infusion, to which 10 milliliter of honey is added to dulcify and 5 beads of lemon beads to season.IndigestionIn this survey, it refers to symptoms of upper gastro enteric piece of land related to digestion as represented by the senior citizens, which includes dyspepsia, upper abdominal uncomfortableness, sickness, bloating, flatulency, station prandial comprehensiveness, early repletion, flatulency, diarrhea, irregularity, dysphagia, coated lingua and un pleasant gu statory sensation in the oral cavity.Senior CitizensBoth male and female aged people who were aged 60 old ages and above and were populating off from their household in selected geriatric attention unit is referred as senior citizen.Geriatric unitGeriatric unit refers to geriatric attention division of Christian Mission Hospital, Madurai, where senior citizen ‘s distinguishable demands are catered.Boundary lineThe survey is delimited to Senior citizens shacking in the geriatric unit, CMH, Madurai.PROJECTED OUTCOMEThe survey findings will be effectual in cut downing the degree of dyspeptic symptoms among senior citizens shacking in selected geriatric unit and to wake up the involvement in non pharmacological intercessions like ginger infusion towards indigestion. Findingss of this survey will assist to be after and pattern Ginger infusion as a complementary therapy in advanced nursing pattern.CHAPTER- IIREVIEW OF LITERATURELinkss between new research subjects and bing cognition are by and large developed by a thorough reappraisal of anterior research workers on a subject and so by developing a model for the subject on the footing of what is studied. In this chapter, the reappraisal works of relevant literature and research surveies are organized under the undermentioned facets. Scenario of indigestion Magnitude of indigestion among aged people Associated factors of indigestion Tool – Global over all symptom graduated table for Dyspepsia Consequence of ginger on wellness complaints Dyspepsia and ginger1. Surveies related to Scenario of indigestion.Sahib, Y. et.al ( 2004 ) conducted a survey on the prevalence and hazard factor of functional indigestion in a multi cultural population in the United States to mensurate the prevalence of functional indigestion and its hazard factors in a multi cultural voluntary sample of the US population. A questionnaire method was followed. Consequences indicate that the prevalence of indigestion was 31.9 per 100 and 15.8 per 100. About 64.5 % Participants with indigestion had functional indigestion. The survey concludes that most topics with indigestion had functional indigestion. Bhatia SJ et.al ( 2001 ) conducted a survey on epidemiology of indigestion in the general population in Mumbai to find the prevalence, human ecology and economic deductions of indigestion in Mumbai. A questionnaire method was followed. Consequence shows that 774 topics had indigestion, 614 people had abdominal comprehensiveness, 374 had abdominal hurting, and 272 had pyrosis and belching. The survey concludes that indigestion was reported by about tierce of the population in Mumbai. M.JJ Van Bommel.et.al ( 2001 ) conducted a survey on audiences and referrals for indigestion in general practice-a one twelvemonth database study to depict the prevalence of indigestion in general pattern, and the clinical and non clinical determiners of referral in these patients. Cross tablets and logistic arrested development analysis were carried out to uncover patient features and referral. The prevalence of indigestion in primary attention was 3.4 % .The survey concludes that indigestion is a often happening ailment in primary attention patients and normally treated by their general practician.2. Magnitude of indigestion among aged peopleAlberto pilotto et.al ( 2006 ) Conducted a survey on the drug used by the aged in general pattern: effects on upper gastro intestinal symptoms to measure the prevalence of drug usage by aged outpatients in Italy and to place the association between drug usage and gastro enteric symptoms. The consequences shows that 32.7 % of patients reported a t least one upper gastro enteric symptom, 25 % with dyspepsia syndrome, 16.2 % had abdominal hurting and 14.25 % had reflux symptoms. The survey concludes that the prevalence of drug usage is really high in aged outpatient population.3. Surveies related to factor of indigestionMahadeva.S.et.al. ( 2010 ) conducted a survey on the Hazard factors associated with indigestion in a rural Asiatic population and its impact on quality of life. To find the prevalence epidemiology and impact of indigestion in a rural Malaysian community Of 2,260 grownup, 2,000 ( 88.5 % ) completed the study. Dyspepsia was found to be associated with female gender ( 15.8 vs. 12.7 % males, P=0.058 ) , Chinese ethnicity ( 19.7 vs. 14.2 % non-Chinese ) , higher instruction degrees, medium-range incomes, non-village-type lodging, non tobacco users, non- infusion drinkers, regular analgesia consumption, and grownups with chronic unwellness. Logistic arrested development analysis showed that higher degrees of instruc tion, i.e. , secondary instruction, non-village lodging, regular analgesia, and chronic unwellness were independent hazard factors for indigestion. Conversely, regular infusion imbibing ) seemed to hold an opposite relationship. Epidemiologic hazard factors include a higher socioeconomic position, regular analgetic ingestion, and chronic unwellness. Mari-Ann et.al ( 2010 ) A cross-sectional study was conducted on Dyspepsia in rural Malaysians is associated with a lower HRQOL. Epidemiological hazard factors include a higher socioeconomic position, regular analgetic ingestion, and chronic unwellness in a representative urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A sum of 2039 grownups age: 40.5A A ±A 11.8A old ages, males 44.2 % , ethnicity: Malayans 45.3 % , Chinese 38.0 % and Indians 13.1 % , third instruction degree 62 % , professional employment 47.7 % and average monthly income USD 850.00 ) were interviewed. Dyspepsia was prevalent in 496 ( 24.3 % ) grownups. Independent forecasters for indigestion, explored by logistic arrested development, were identified as: Malaysians and Indian ( OR 1.59, 95 % CIA =A 1.03-2.45 ) ethnicity, heavy chilly intake usage of regular analgesia and chronic unwellness. Ethnicity, in add-on to acknowledge epidemiological factors, is a hazard factor for indigestion in an urban multi-racial Asiatic population. Barazkasm et.al ( 2009 ) conducted a survey on uninvestigated indigestion and its related factors in an Persian community to find the prevalence rate of indigestion and the hazard factors. A cross sectional study was performed. The consequences indicates that the prevalence rate of uninvestigated indigestion was 8.5 % .Post parandial comprehensiveness was experienced by 41.5 % .The survey concludes that adult females, older people, corpulent, widowed and low instruction topics are more likely to endure from indigestion. SanjivA MahadevaA MRCP, MD.et.al ( 2006 ) conducted a survey on assess the association between depression and functional indigestion. It showed greater prevalence of depression among functional indigestion patients ( 30.4 % ) , when compared to organic indigestion patients ( 11.2 % ) . Women showed greater hazard to present functional indigestion and in footings of age, the group with ages between 31 to 50 old ages and 51 to 60 old ages showed protection consequence ( topics within these age groups have minor hazard to present functional indigestion ) . After the multivariate analysis depressed patients showed three times greater co morbidity with functional indigestion when compared to non-depressed patients. The accommodation for the gender, age and matrimonial position variables confirmed the association between functional indigestion and depression. Consequences point the demand to measure the presence of depression in functional indigestion patients and to set up specific interv ention schemes for these patients. Stephen W.MD et.al ( 2006 ) Conducted a survey on indigestion in homeless grownup to find the prevalence and hazard factors for indigestion in a representative sample of stateless individuals. A cross sectional study with serologic proving for Helicobacter pylori infection was done. The consequences revealed that 18 % had upper tummy hurting, 595 had dyspeptic symptoms. H.pylori infection was identified in 315 of Participants. The survey concludes that indigestion is a common job among stateless grownups in Toronto. Stolte M et Al ( 2003 ) conducted a survey on Helicobacter pylori obliteration is good in the intervention of functional indigestion to measure whether the obliteration of Helicobacter pylori leads to long term alleviation of symptoms of functional indigestion. Double unsighted obliteration was followed. The consequences showed a statistically benefit in footings of symptom alleviation from non-ulcer indigestion. The survey concludes that H.pylori infection causes dyspeptic symptom in a subset of patients with functional indigestion.4. Surveies related to consequence of ginger on wellness complaintsZahra Vahdat ( 2009 ) conducted a survey on consequence of enteric feeding with ginger infusion in acute respiratory hurt syndrome. An enteric diet supplemented with ginger infusion in acute respiratory hurt syndrome ( ARDS ) patients may be good for gas exchange and could diminish continuance of mechanical airing and length of stay in intensive attention unit ( ICU ) . In this individual centre, randomized, controlled dual blind survey, 32 patients with ARDS were randomized to have a high protein enteric diet enriched with ginger infusion or placebo. Patients fed enteric diet enriched with ginger infusion had significantly betterment in oxygenation was observed on twenty-four hours 5 ( P=0.02 ) and 10 ( P=0.003 ) in ginger infusion group compared to command group. A important difference was found in continuance of mechanical airing ( P0.02 ) and length of ICU stay ( P=0.04 ) in favor of ginger infusion group. None of incidences like barotraumas, organ failure and mortality found among survey groups. Zahra Atai et.al ( 2009 ) conducted a survey on Inhibitory Effect of Ginger Extract on Candida albicans fungous infections could be dangerous in immuno compromised patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent Fungi in the unwritten pit. The first measure for intervention could be done utilizing topical fungicidal agents. Nystatine is a pick for mentioned use but there are some jobs in its utilizing including: unfavoured gustatory sensation, frequence of use, etc. This survey was carried out to happen an option for Nystatine. The survey was designed based on laboratory probes to look into the fungicidal activity of zingiber offcinale ( Ginger ) on Candida albicans which was obtained from Persian microbic aggregation and was confirmed by Germ Tube formation trial. Ethanolic Ginger infusion was prepared. The fungicidal activity of the infusion was determined utilizing Agar dilution and disc diffusion techniques. Datas were analyzed by ANOVA trial. The consequences showed that the eth anolic infusion was effectual on Candida albicans ( 2 mg mLiˆÂ ­1 ) at the concentration of 1:5. The survey indicates that Ginger infusion might hold promise in intervention of unwritten moniliasis. Hoffman.T ( 2007 ) says that ginger has been used safely for 1000s old ages in cookery and medically in common people and place redresss. Advanced engineering enables the proof of these traditional experiences. The national centre for ( NCCAM ) has evaluated the consequences of the available surveies, evaluation the studies from â€Å" implicative † ( for short term usage of ginger for alleviation from, gestation related sickness and emesis ) to â€Å" assorted † ( when used for sickness caused by gesture illness, chemotherapy or surgery ) and to â€Å" ill-defined † for handling rheumatoid arthritis, osteo arthritis or joint and musculus hurting. White B ( 2007 ) explained ginger is one of the more normally used herbal addendums. Although frequently consumed for culinary intents, it is taken by many patients to handle a assortment of conditions, ginger has been shown to be effectual for gestation induced and post operative sickness and emesis. There is less grounds to back up its usage for gesture illness or other types of sickness and emesis. Assorted consequences have been found in limited surveies of ginger for the intervention of arthritis symptoms. Hollyer.T.Boo.et.al ( 2002 ) conducted a survey related to the usage of complementary and alternate medical specialty by Women enduring from sickness and purging during gestation. In this survey 70 adult females completed the questionnaire 61 % reported utilizing complementary and alternate medical specialty therapies of which the three most popular were ginger, vit B6 and acupressure 21 % of those who reported utilizing CAM had consulted CAM practioners, 8 % their doctors / druggist and 71 % discussed the use with household, friends and other wellness professionals. Womans did non utilize CAM stated they would likely utilize these modes if there was more information about these safety in gestation. Nanthakoman T, Pongrojpaw.D ( 2006 ) found that efficaciousness of ginger in bar of station operative sickness and emesis after major gynecologic surgery from March 2005-april 2006, 120 patients who underwent major gynecologic surgery were randomized in to group A ( n=60 ) and group B ( n=60 ) . The patients in group A received two capsules of ginger taken one hr before the process ( one capsule contains 0.5 g of ginger pulverization ) . The patients in group received the placebo. The ( VANS ) ocular parallel sickness mark and frequence of purging were evaluated at 0, 2,6,12 and 24 hours after the operation statistically important difference in sickness between group A ( 48.3 % ) and group B ( 66.7 % ) .5. Surveies related to dyspepsia and gingerBadreldin H.et Al ( 2008 ) conducted a survey on some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological belongingss of ginger ( zingiber officinale Roscoe ) : A reappraisal of recent research. The survey shows that ginger is used for a broad a rray of unrelated complaints that include dyspepsia, irregularity, spasms, purging, strivings, sore pharynx, arthritis and helminthiasis. Mahady GB et.al ( 2003 ) Conducted a survey on ginger root ( Zingiber officinale Roscoe ) and the gingerols inhibit the growing of CagA+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. A methanol infusion of the dried ginger rootstock, 10-gingerols and 6-shoyoal, were tested against 19 strains HP including 5CagA+ strains. The consequence revealed that a methanol infusion of ginger rootstock inhibit the growing of all 19 strain wickedness vitro. The survey concludes that ginger root extracts incorporating gingerols inhibit the growing of H.pylori CagA+ strains in vitro. Gupta et.al ( 2003 ) Conducted a survey on ginger at Toyama medical and pharmaceutical university.Found that fresh pieces of ginger dipped in a small salt additions salivation in the oral cavity and stocked ‘digestive fire ‘ in the tummy. The survey concludes that the ginger activated a concatenation reaction in our immune system that aids digestion and dainties stomach complaints. Narullah A et.al ( 2003 ) conducted a survey on usage of common people redresss among patients in Karachi Pakistan to find the scientific grounds sing the usage of herbal medical specialty in Pakistan. A questionnaire method was followed. The survey shows that cinnamon, ginger, cloves, honey, lemon, poppy seeds, eggs and curd are the common herbal medical specialty they are practising. These common people redresss are used in common cold, cough and grippe to more serious status such as indigestion, asthma, icterus and heat shot. The survey concludes that the significant usage of common people redresss for intervention of medical conditions need to form on scientific lines.6. Surveies related 7-point Global Symptom Scale for Dyspepsia:S. J. O. Veldhuyzen et.al conducted survey that proof was performed in two randomized-controlled tests ( n A? 1121 and 512 ) . Global overall symptom was compared with the quality of life in reflux and indigestion, GI symptom evaluation graduated table, reflux disease questionnaire and 10 specific symptoms. The intra category correlativity coefficient was calculated for patients with stable indigestion defined by no alteration in overall intervention consequence mark over two visits. Change in planetary overall symptom mark correlated significantly with quality of life for reflux and indigestion, GI symptom evaluation graduated table, reflux disease questionnaire and specific symptoms ( all P & lt ; 0.0002 ) . Dependability: there was a positive correlativity between alteration in planetary overall symptom and alteration in symptom badness. The consequence size and standardised response mean were 1.1 and 2.1, severally. The planetary overall symptom graduated table is a simple, valid result step for indigestion intervention tests.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Customer-Driven Strategic Marketing

Chapter 1 Customer-Driven Strategic Marketing Lecture Outline I. Defining Marketing We define marketing as the process of creating, distributing, promoting, and pricing goods, services, and ideas to facilitate satisfying exchange relationships with customers and to develop and maintain favorable relationships with stakeholders in a dynamic environment. [ A ]. Marketing Focuses on Customers [ 1 ]. As the purchasers of the products that organizations develop, promote, distribute, and price, customers are the focal point of all marketing activities. [ 2 ].The essence of marketing is to develop satisfying exchanges from which both customers and marketers benefit. [ 3 ]. Organizations generally focus their marketing efforts on a specific group of customers, or target market. [ B ]. Marketing Deals with Products, Distribution, Promotion, and Price 1. Marketing is more than simply advertising or selling a product; it involves developing and managing a product, making the product available i n the right place and at a price acceptable to buyers, and communicating information to help customers determine if the product will satisfy their needs. 2.These activities—product, distribution, promotion, and pricing—are known as the marketing mix because marketers decide what type of each element to use and in what amounts. 3. The Product Variable [ a ])The product variable of the marketing mix deals with researching customers’ needs and wants and designing a product that satisfies them. [ b ])A product can be a good, a service, or an idea. ( [ 1 ])Good—a physical entity ( [ 2 ])Service—the application of human and mechanical efforts to people or objects to provide intangible benefits to customers ( [ 3 ])Idea—concept, philosophy, image, or issue c ])The product variable includes the creation or modification of brand names and packaging. It may also include decisions regarding warranty and repair services. [ d ])Product variable decisions and related activities are important because they directly impact the creation of products that meet customers’ needs and wants. 4. The Distribution Variable In dealing with the distribution variable, a marketing manager makes products available in the quantities desired to as many target market customers as possible, keeping total inventory, transportation, and storage costs as low as possible. . The Promotion Variable The promotion variable relates to activities used to inform individuals or groups about an organization and its products. a)Promotion can be aimed at increasing public awareness of an organization and new or existing products. b) Promotional activities can also educate customers about product features or urge people to take a particular stance on a political or social issue. 6. The Price Variable a)The price variable relates to decisions and actions associated with establishing pricing objectives and policies and determining product prices. )Price is a critic al component of the marketing mix because customers are concerned about the value obtained in an exchange. 7. Marketing mix variables are often viewed as controllable because they can be modified; however, economic conditions, competitive structure, or government regulations may limit a marketing manager’s influence. [ C ]. Marketing Builds Relationships with Customers and Other Stakeholders 1. Individuals and organizations engage in marketing to facilitate exchanges—that is, the provision or transfer of goods, services, or ideas in return for something of value. [ 4 ].Four conditions must exist for an exchange to occur: a)Two or more individuals, groups, or organizations must participate, and each must possess something of value desired by the other party. b)The exchange should provide a benefit or satisfaction to both parties involved in the transaction. c)Each party must have confidence in the promise of the â€Å"something of value† held by the other. d)To b uild trust, the parties to the exchange must meet expectations. [ 5 ]. An exchange will not necessarily take place just because these conditions exist; marketing activities can occur even without an actual transaction or sale.Figure 1. 2 depicts the exchange process. 6. Marketing activities should attempt to create and maintain satisfying exchange relationships. [ 7 ]. Marketers are also concerned with building relationships with relevant stakeholders who have a â€Å"stake,† or claim, in some aspect of a company’s products, operations, markets, industry, and outcomes; these may include customers, employees, investors and shareholders, suppliers, governments, communities, and many others. [ D ]. Marketing Occurs in a Dynamic Environment . The marketing environment, which includes competitive, economic, legal and regulatory, technological, and socio-cultural forces, surrounds the customer and affects the marketing mix as shown in Figure 1. 1. 2. The forces of the market ing environment affect a marketer’s ability to facilitate exchanges in three ways: a)They affect customers’ lifestyles, standards of living, and preferences and needs for products. b)They help determine whether and how a marketing manager can perform certain marketing activities. )They affect a marketing manager’s decisions and actions by influencing buyers’ reactions to the organization’s marketing mix. 3. Marketing environment forces can fluctuate quickly and dramatically. 4. Changes in the marketing environment produce uncertainty for marketers and at times hurt marketing efforts, but they also create opportunities. 5. Marketing mix elements—product, distribution, promotion, and price—are factors over which an organization has control; the forces of the environment, however, are subject to far less control. II.Understanding the Marketing Concept A. According to the marketing concept, an organization should try to provide products t hat satisfy customers’ needs through a coordinated set of activities that also allows the organization to achieve its goals. 1. Customer satisfaction is the major focus of the marketing concept. a)To implement the marketing concept, an organization focuses on customer analysis, competitor analysis, and integration of the organization’s resources to provide customer value and satisfaction, as well as long-term profits. )The organization must also continue to alter, adapt, and develop products to keep pace with customers’ changing desires and preferences. [ 8 ]. The marketing concept is not a second definition of marketing. It is a management philosophy guiding an organization’s overall activities. [ 9 ]. It is important for marketers to consider not only current buyers’ needs, but also the long-term needs of society. B. Evolution of the Marketing Concept 1. The Production Orientation )During the second half of the nineteenth century, the Industrial Revolution was in full swing in the United States. b)As a result of new technology and new ways of using labor, products poured into the marketplace, where consumer demand for the new manufactured goods was strong. 2. The Sales Orientation a)Between the mid 1920s and the early 1950s, businesspeople viewed sales as the major means of increasing profits. b)During this era, businesspeople believed that the major marketing activities were personal selling, advertising, and distribution. 3.The Marketing Orientation a)By the early 1950s, some businesspeople recognized they must first determine what customers want and then produce it, rather than make products and try to persuade customers that they need what is produced. b)A marketing orientation requires the â€Å"organization-wide generation of market intelligence pertaining to current and future customer needs, dissemination of the intelligence across departments, and organization-wide responsiveness to it. † c)Today, businesses want to satisfy customers and build meaningful, long-term buyer-seller relationships.C. Implementing the Marketing Concept To implement the marketing concept, a marketing-oriented organization must accept some general conditions and recognize and deal with several problems. 1. Management must first establish an information system to discover customers’ real needs and then use the information to create satisfying products. 2. To satisfy customers’ objectives as well as its own, a company must also coordinate all its activities. III. Managing Customer Relationships A.Achieving the full profit potential of each customer relationship should be the fundamental goal of every marketing strategy. 1. At the most basic level, profits can be obtained through relationships in the following ways: a)By acquiring new customers b)By enhancing the profitability of existing customers c)By extending the duration of customer relationships 2. Implementing the marketing concept means optim izing the exchange relationship—the relationship between a company’s financial investment in customer relationships and the return generated by customers responding to that investment.B. The term relationship marketing refers to â€Å"long-term, mutually beneficial arrangements in which both the buyer and seller focus on value enhancement through the creation of more satisfying exchanges. † 1. Relationship marketing continually deepens the buyer’s trust in the company, and as the customer’s confidence grows, this in turn increases the organization’s understanding of the customer’s needs. [ 10 ]. Eventually this interaction becomes a solid relationship that allows for cooperation and mutual dependence. C.Customer-centric marketing requires developing collaborative relationships with customers based on focusing on their individual needs and concerns. 1. It adopts the view that customers buy offerings which provide value and prefer a rel ationship rather than a transactional orientation. 2. Collaborating with and learning from customers leads to a â€Å"sense and respond† approach rather than a produce and sell approach. D. Customer relationship management (CRM) uses information about customers to create marketing strategies which develop and sustain desirable customer relationships. 1.By increasing customer value over time, organizations try to retain and increase long-term profitability through customer loyalty. 2. Managing customer relationships requires identifying patterns of buying behavior and using that information to focus on the most promising and profitable customers. IV. Value-Driven Marketing A. To manage customer relationships, organizations must develop marketing mixes that create value for customers. Value is a customer’s subjective assessment of benefits relative to costs in determining the worth of a product (customer value = customer benefits – customer costs). . Customer bene fits include anything a buyer receives in an exchange. 2. Customer costs include anything a buyer must give up to obtain the benefits provided by the product. Costs include the monetary price of the product as well as less obvious nonmonetary costs, such as time and effort. B. The process people use to determine the value of a product is not highly scientific. C. In developing marketing activities, it is important to recognize that customers receive benefits based on their experiences. D. The marketing mix can be used to enhance perceptions of value. V. Marketing ManagementA. Marketing management is the process of planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling marketing activities to facilitate effective and efficient exchanges. 1. â€Å"Effectiveness† is the degree to which an exchange helps achieve an organization’s objectives. 2. â€Å"Efficiency† refers to minimizing the resources an organization must spend to achieve a specific level of desired exchang es. B. Planning is a systematic process of assessing opportunities and resources, determining marketing objectives, and developing marketing strategy and plans for implementation and control.C. Organizing marketing activities involves developing the internal structure of the marketing unit. D. Proper implementation of marketing plans hinges on coordination of marketing activities, motivation of marketing personnel, and effective communication within the unit. E. The marketing control process consists of establishing performance standards, comparing actual performance with established standards, and reducing the difference between desired and actual performance. VI. The Importance of Marketing in Our Global EconomyA. Marketing Costs Consume a Sizable Portion of Buyers’ Dollars 1. About one-half of a buyer’s dollar goes to the costs of marketing. 2. Because marketing expenses consume significant portions of each dollar, it is important to know how this money is used. B. Marketing Is Used in Nonprofit Organizations 1. Marketing is also important in organizations working to achieve goals other than ordinary business objectives such as profit. 2. Government agencies engage in marketing activities to fulfill missions and goals. . In the private sector, nonprofit organizations also employ marketing activities to create, distribute, promote, and even price programs that benefit particular segments of society. C. Marketing Is Important to Business and the Economy 1. Businesses must sell products to survive and grow, and marketing activities help sell their products. 2. Marketing activities help produce profits which are essential to the survival of individual businesses and the health and ultimate survival of the global economy. D.Marketing Fuels Our Global Economy 1. Profits from marketing products contribute to the development of new products and technologies. 2. Advances in technology, along with falling political and economic barriers, and the univers al desire for a higher standard of living, have made marketing across national borders commonplace while stimulating global economic growth. E. Marketing Knowledge Enhances Consumer Awareness 1. The study of marketing allows a more effective assessment of a product’s value and flaws. 2.An understanding of marketing enables evaluation of corrective measures (such as laws, regulations, and industry guidelines) which could stop unfair, damaging, or unethical marketing practices. F. Marketing Connects People through Technology 1. New technology, especially technology related to computers and telecommunications, helps marketers understand and satisfy more customers than ever before. 2. The Internet is a vital tool for marketing to consumers and other businesses. G. Socially Responsible Marketing can Promote the Welfare of Customers and Society 1.The success of our economic system depends on marketers whose values promote trust and cooperative relationships in which customers are t reated with respect. 2. By managing concern about the impact of marketing on society, a organization can protect the interests of the general public and the natural environment. H. Marketing Offers Many Exciting Career Prospects 1. From 25 to 33 percent of all civilian workers in the U. S. perform marketing activities. 2. Whether a person earns a living through marketing activities or performs them voluntarily in non-business projects, marketing knowledge and skills are valuable assets.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Psychopathology in the Workplace Essays

Psychopathology in the Workplace Essays Psychopathology in the Workplace Essay Psychopathology in the Workplace Essay PSYCHOPATHOLOGY IN THE WORKPLACE Name: Course: Date: Psychopathology in the Workplace Psychopathology refers to the branch of medicine, which deals with the origin, development and ultimate manifestations of mental and behavioral disorders. It can also mean the behavioral tendencies or reflections of any mental disorder or simply symptoms of psychological impairment. This area of study is often conducted by professionals such as psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, whose constant research aims at looking for the best curative solutions for these symptoms. From these explanations, it is easy to see how treatment of these symptoms is of primary importance to anyone that experiences them. Their manifestation among office workers is of particular concern due to the resultant effects that they can cause (Larsen et al 2010, p. 2). The readings in this book are critical in helping to contain any mental disorders that may arise at the workplace. As managers, it is necessary to always be on the lookout for any such symptoms and rush to contain them before they affect the productivity of employees. Mental disorders can be dealt with in several different ways. As mentioned earlier, psychopathology aims at establishing the origin of mental disorders and through these findings seek the best method of treatment. At the workplace, numerous factors can lead to poor mental health, especially because of the stressful environments that workplaces can sometimes provide. Though most of these are centered on internal workplace mechanisms, some of them can actually be externally instigated. Some of the manifestations of mental impairment as witnessed in the work setting include anxiety and stress. With regard to psychiatry, anxiety can be described as a state of unease, apprehension, uncertainty and fear of future events or situations. These feelings cause the impairment of an individual’s physical and psychological functioning. Stress is pressure exerted on one’s body because of events or situations that make them feel frustrated, nervous and sometimes angry. These symptoms are often triggered by various events taking place at the workplace. Many people in organizations experience stress and anxiety whenever they need to change or adapt to new situations and responsibilities, such as undertaking a different task from the one they were used to in a short period. As a person involved in management, it is necessary to evaluate one’s employees for any signs of mental disorders. This is not only done by mere observation but by engaging the services of c linical psychiatrists, just as the authors of the book recommend. Depression is another manifestation of poor mental disposition. It is whereby a person feels moody and has lost interest in most if not all activities. Burnout on the other hand has been attributed to stress at the workplace (Kahn et al 2003, 85-97). Depression can be due to burnout, which is generally a state of mental, physical and emotional exhaustion mostly because of doubts about one’s competence at work and the value of their work. Such people become increasingly disoriented about their work and eventually lose interest and perform poorly. In order to prevent this from happening, the organization needs to be actively involved in the welfare of their employees. Psychopathology is a necessary procedure at the workplace as a measure of implementing mental health policies and helping their workers. Psychosis is one of the more severe symptoms of mental illness. This is because it completely distorts one from reality and can be caused by psychosocial factors at the workplace. Psychosis can lead to abnormal behaviors among employees such as hallucination and bizarre beliefs. Work related stress and disruptions that cause change in a person’s life such as a transfer from one area of work to another contribute heavily to the mental state of employees. Lack of attention to these problems is what eventually leads to mental issues at an advanced stage like psychosis. Mental health policies are standards set in place, which define the issues surrounding mental health including measures to manage them. They are pre-formulated schemes with details and plans containing strategies to be implemented to tackle mental disorders. These policies transcend into the workplace where they strive to achieve the same purpose with that aimed at the general population. Management, as I have learnt is very essential in helping to implement these policies to maintain good mental health among their employees. Such policies are incorporated into those of administration and work hand in hand with other welfare policies to achieve and maintain a positive work environment for employees. This is not to say that psychopathology only targets employees. Its scope includes managers who exhibit symptoms of mental disorders. In conclusion, the readings provide the way forward in dealing with mental health issues at the workplace and acknowledge the importance of mental health policies. Psychopathology is equally important as it helps in containing mental problems before they get to an aggravated point. The workplace has its challenges, which may lead to stress and ultimately result in poor mental health. Being in a managerial position makes one liable for employee welfare and thus measures such as psychopathology should be undertaken to ensure promotion of mental health among employees. Additionally, it is of essence that managers and others in administrative offices should take part in creating an environment at the workplace that would not pose any threat to the mental health of workers at the organization (Schmidt 2010, 299).

Monday, October 21, 2019

buy custom Short History of America essay

buy custom Short History of America essay Home protection was advocated for in the US which came as a result of the request of forbidding liquor which led to the considerable irresponsible behaviors in marriage. A more elaborate method of politics and economy-related issues was put in a place where a democratic right to vote was implemented. A president by the name Frances Willard was made by women to abort the misconception that they were feeble, highly parasitic and could not get on their own. The turning point of the ideology of feminism was seen at the time when much of race-related concepts and ethnic niche were governed. The ancient feminism of equal rights had never been practiced. Women were given greater consideration in the field of employment, education capacities and even politics. Some other leaders in suffrages argued that the educational concept and the voting ideologies were not in contradictions to the movements interests provided that gender equality was upheld. One National American Women Association was created in 1890 to pull bodies of suffrage that had been formed after the civil war (Drehle 624). Establishing the new imperialism took place in the late 1890s and was taken to a broad projection at its definition. This ge is dated back in the final quarter of the 19th century as dominant European powers secured substantial parts of the world to themselves. American imperialism took considerable center stage in the North American continental parts. The Monroe Doctrine made people believe that America had taken hold of the northern hemisphere. America could not get to a compromise and let itself to be outdone in the fight for imperialism. Finally, America got to be the world power in the Spanish eyes with some accidental bombing afterwards. 270 deaths were experienced which sought for diplomacy but it was never there (Zinn 626). The two texts, "The White Man's Burden," and "New York Fire Kills 148 gives the political, cultural and economic values of Americans are clearly drawn out. The history matters of the US gives an experience of the Americans all over that time. The cultural values of the Americans with Indian origin had their faith in the norm that any kind of body pain had a good recommendation from God for healing. The availability of medicine men was also upheld with a critical responsibility of giving medication and food. The Indian culture in the American ground gave for the celebration of visitors celebration overnight events (Kipling 1). Land had a great consideration as a background of the economic sector with its main product in food being tuna .The energy source at this time was mainly firewood from the timber around them that is why they had to collect it all through their journey. In this very economy the practice of medicine men also played a major role in the provision of income. That is why their influence was felt at all levels. Many of the economic activities of this time 1911 faced a lot of challenges. One most known challenge is the March, 26, 1911 which resulted to too many deaths. The society had good treatment of the fire out break at the time since the safety measure had bit improved. The hospital facilitation also shows that level of social care was up to task. Police forces at the fire site gave relevance of the political image with the government of that time. In political aspect .the police were of varied responsibilities since they were to keep calm at the same time be a rescue tool. People of the state of New York give note of fairness in judicial system since a transcript on the criminal trial against the factory was made. Investigative commission were also done to give measures of curbing such challenges as political vision (Murray 2) Buy custom Short History of America essay

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Post-WWII Jewish Migration

Post-WWII Jewish Migration Approximately six million European Jews were killed in the Holocaust during World War II. Many of the European Jews who survived the persecution and death camps had nowhere to go after V-E Day, May 8, 1945. Not only had Europe been practically destroyed, but many survivors did not want to return to their pre-war homes in Poland or Germany. Jews became Displaced Persons (also known as DPs) and spent time in helter-skelter camps, some of which were located at former concentration camps. As the Allies were taking Europe back from Germany in 1944-1945, the Allied armies liberated the Nazi concentration camps. These camps, which housed from a few dozen to thousands of survivors, were complete surprises for most of the liberating armies. The armies were overwhelmed by the misery, by the victims who were so thin and near-death. A dramatic example of what the soldiers found upon liberation of the camps occurred at Dachau where a train load of 50 boxcars of prisoners sat on the railroad for days as the Germans were escaping. There were about 100 people in each boxcar and, of the 5,000 prisoners, about 3,000 were already dead upon the arrival of the army. Thousands of survivors still died in the days and weeks following liberation and the military buried the dead in individual and mass graves. Generally, the Allied armies rounded up concentration camp victims and forced them to remain in the confines of the camp under armed guard. Medical personnel were brought into the camps to care for the victims and food supplies were provided but conditions in the camps were dismal. When available, nearby SS living quarters were used as hospitals. Survivors had no method of contacting relatives as they were not allowed to send or receive mail. The survivors were forced to sleep in their bunkers, wear their camp uniforms, and were not allowed to leave the barbed-wire camps, all while the German population outside of the camps were able to try to return to normal life. The military reasoned that the Holocaust survivors (now essentially their prisoners) could not roam the countryside for fear that they would attack civilians. By June, word of poor treatment of Holocaust survivors reached Washington, D.C. President Harry S. Truman, anxious to appease concerns, sent Earl G. Harrison, the dean of the University of Pennsylvania Law School, to Europe to investigate the ramshackle DP camps. Harrison was shocked by the conditions he found, As things stand now, we appear to be treating the Jews as the Nazis treated them, except that we do not exterminate them. They are in concentration camps, in large numbers under our military guard instead of SS troops. One is led to wonder whether the German people, seeing this, are not supposing that we are following or at least condoning Nazi policy. (Proudfoot, 325) Harrison strongly recommended to President Truman that 100,000 Jews, the approximate number of DPs in Europe at the time, be allowed to enter Palestine. As the United Kingdom controlled Palestine, Truman contacted the British Prime Minister Clement Atlee with the recommendation but Britain demurred, fearing repercussions (especially problems with oil) from Arab nations if Jews were allowed into the Middle East. Britain convened a joint United States-United Kingdom committee, the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry, to investigate the status of DPs. Their report, issued in April 1946, concurred with the Harrison report and recommended that 100,000 Jews be allowed into Palestine. Atlee ignored the recommendation and proclaimed that 1,500 Jews would be allowed to migrate to Palestine each month. This quota of 18,000 a year continued until the British rule in Palestine ended in 1948. Following the Harrison report, President Truman called for major changes to the treatment of Jews in the DP camps. Jews who were DPs were originally accorded status based on their country of origin and did not have separate status as Jews. General Dwight D. Eisenhower complied with Trumans request and began to implement changes in the camps, making them more humanitarian. Jews became a separate group in the camps so Jews no longer had to live with Allied prisoners who, in some cases, had served as operatives or even guards in the concentration camps. DP camps were established throughout Europe and those in Italy served as congregation points for those attempting to flee to Palestine. Trouble in Eastern Europe in 1946 more than doubled the number of displaced persons. At the beginning of the war, about 150,000 Polish Jews escaped to the Soviet Union. In 1946 these Jews began being repatriated to Poland. There were reasons enough for Jews not to want to remain in Poland but one incident in particular convinced them to emigrate. On July 4, 1946 there was a pogrom against the Jews of Kielce and 41 people were killed and 60 were seriously injured. By the winter of 1946/1947, there were about a quarter of a million DPs in Europe. Truman conceded to loosen immigration laws in the United States and brought thousands of DPs into America. The priority immigrants were orphaned children. Over the course of 1946 to 1950, over 100,000 Jews migrated to the United States. Overwhelmed by international pressures and opinions, Britain placed the matter of Palestine into the hands of the United Nations in February 1947. In the fall of 1947, the General Assembly voted to partition Palestine and create two independent states, one Jewish and the other Arab. Fighting immediately broke out between Jews and Arabs in Palestine but even with the U.N.s decision, Britain still kept firm control of Palestinian immigration as long as they could. Britains complicated process for regulation of displaced Jewish immigration to Palestinian was plagued with problems. Jews were moved to Italy, a trip which they often did on foot. From Italy, ships and crew were rented for the passage across the Mediterranean to Palestine. Some of the ships made it past a British naval blockade of Palestine, but most did not. The passengers of captured ships were forced to disembark in Cyprus, where the British operated DP camps. The British government began sending DPs directly to camps on Cyprus in August 1946. DPs shipped to Cyprus were then able to apply for legal immigration to Palestine. The British Royal Army ran the camps on the island. Armed patrols guarded the perimeters to prevent escape. Fifty-two thousand Jews were interned and 2,200 babies were born on the island of Cyprus between 1946 and 1949. Approximately 80 percent of the internees were between the ages of 13 and 35. Jewish organization was strong in Cyprus and education and job training was internally provided. Leaders on Cyprus often became initial government officials in the new state of Israel. One shipload of refugees heightened concern for DPs throughout the world. The Jewish survivors had formed an organization called Brichah (flight) for the purpose of smuggling immigrants (Aliya Bet, illegal immigration) to Palestine and the organization moved 4,500 refugees from DP camps in Germany to a port near Marseilles, France in July 1947 where they boarded Exodus. The Exodus departed France but was being watched by the British navy. Even before it entered the territorial waters of Palestine, destroyers forced the boat to the port at Haifa. The Jews resisted and the British killed three and wounded more with machine guns and tear gas. The British ultimately forced the passengers to disembark and they were placed on British vessels, not for deportation to Cyprus, as was the usual policy, but to France. The British wanted to pressure the French to take responsibility for the 4,500. The Exodus sat in the French port for a month as the French refused to force the refugees to disemba rk but they did offer asylum to those who wished to voluntarily leave. Not one of them did. In an attempt to force the Jews off the ship, the British announced that the Jews would be taken back to Germany. Still, no one disembarked as they wanted to go to Israel and Israel alone. When the ship arrived in Hamburg, Germany in September 1947, soldiers dragged each passenger off of the ship in front of reporters and camera operators. Truman and the much of the world watched and knew that a Jewish state needed to be established. On May 14, 1948 the British government left Palestine and the State of Israel was proclaimed the same day. The United States was the first country to recognize the new State. Legal immigration began in earnest, even though the Israeli parliament, the Knesset, did not approve the Law of Return, (which allows any Jew to migrate to Israel and become a citizen) until July 1950. Immigration to Israel increased rapidly despite war against hostile Arab neighbors. On May 15, 1948, the first day of Israeli statehood, 1,700 immigrants arrived. There was an average of 13,500 immigrants each month from May through December of 1948, far exceeding the prior legal migration approved by the British of 1,500 per month. Ultimately, the survivors of the Holocaust were able to emigrate to Israel, the United States, or a host of other countries. The State of Israel accepted as many that were willing to come and Israel worked with the arriving DPs to teach them job skills, provide employment, and to help the immigrants help build the wealthy and technologically advanced country that it is today.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Business Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Business Ethics - Essay Example The main body of the essay will be structured using the STAR format. According to Kotler & Armstrong (2004, p. 127), â€Å"written regulations cannot possibly cover all potential marketing abuses and existing laws may be difficult to enforce. However, beyond the written laws and regulations, business is also governed by social codes and rules of professional ethics.† Therefore, companies that are enlightened always encourage their managers to focus on doing the right things always for the betterment of the company. It is imperative for businesses to try to create a balance between the goals of the organisation as well as its CSR initiatives. Careful consideration should always be taken given that there are often conflicting interests whereby certain situations can give rise to disagreements about the right course of action that can be taken in a given situation. Ethics Basically, business ethics refers to the values, principles and standards that operate within business and th ese attempt to make a distinction between something that is morally good from bad (Rossouw, 2004). As such, values can be described as the â€Å"essential and enduring tenets† that help define the company and are â€Å"not to be compromised for financial gain or short term expediency,† (DesJardins, 2006, p.5). Cultural environments in which organisations operate shape the values of the organisations given that there are many forces that affect the way people behave such as perceptions about situations, preferences as well as attitudes which influence people to behave in a particular way (Kotler & Armstrong, 2004). It can be noted that there are different types of values in the organisation such as financial, political, historical as well as cultural. Corporate social responsibility On the other hand, the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) suggests that there is need for an organisation to establish goodwill with the values and norms of a particular societ y in which it would be operating. Whilst there is no agreed definition of the concept of CSR, it has been defined as a function that transcends but includes making profits, creating jobs and producing goods and services that satisfy the needs and interests of the stakeholders (Oketch 2005 as cited in Smith 2003). Strydom (2004, p.11) suggests that â€Å"CSR is the concept that maintains that businesses are part of the larger society in which they exist and are accountable to the society for their operations.† This means that there is need for the organisations to try to build a relationship between the goals and objectives of the organisation, needs and interests of the stakeholders and the society at large. This concept is also related to ethical issues in the organisation. Situation In this particular case, Gino, the CEO of DMBC intends to divide the windfall of the company between the new CSR program focused on Batten disease and employee bonuses. This follows the diagnosi s of his daughter with Batten disease and this is the major reason why he is pushing for this initiative. However, of notable concern is that the company had not given any pay rises to the employees for almost three years and in some instances, it had been forced to cut salaries for the employees but it seems that Gino is more concerned about the welfare of his daughter at the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Should Performance Enhancing Drugs (Such as Steroids) Be Accepted in Research Paper

Should Performance Enhancing Drugs (Such as Steroids) Be Accepted in Sports - Research Paper Example This facet has divided the world population into two segment with some being against, the use of steroids while others supporting introduction of the drugs in the sports (Cooper, pg 102). Each one of the two sides, hold different opinions as to why they have taken their own specific stand. The side of sportsmen and women as well as the trainers, who support the idea argue that, use of the drugs helps minimize the injuries and also enhance recovery of body muscles, While the sporting bodies which opposes the idea of using these drugs argues that acceptance of this substance promotes unfair sporting activities that are based on lie rather than the true fact of sporting. The world has continued to ponder on the issue of performance enhancing drugs in sporting activities. It has been left in confusion striving to find a common ground on the matter. The history of this issue date as back to ancient Greeks who used the plant extracts as stimulant. The prominence of doping, however, heightened in late 1960s; when the sporting activity became more popular in different continents. Nevertheless, the climax of the issue has gained moment in the past decade with the majority of athletes being diagnosed to have injected these drugs in their system in order to enhance their performance (Cooper, pg33). With increase evolution in health technology, it has become much easier for the sporting bodies to detect and confirm if the accused person has used the drugs. Research on these enhancing drugs has shown that; they help in building of fat reserves in the muscle of the person through protein stimulation. The individual becomes even much stronger, hence able to par ticipate in the sports and also train for long hours without exhaustion. As the heated debate on drugs continues to take a better part of the center stage, the puzzling question which the majority of the partisan continue to ask, Do we have to accept these drugs in the sporting activities?. The

Company Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Company Analysis - Essay Example Weaknesses need to be overcome as they have the potential for being a major reason in the failure of the business (Hauser, 2012). When evaluated by my group members, it was found that my contribution, attendance at meetings, and leadership were the major drawbacks. This was perhaps because of an inappropriate leadership style or not being much competitive and strong leader in directing the way. I should rather be more vigilant, risk taking, and influential as the production head. Too much relaxed attitude with utmost responsibility given to the subordinates may increase their motivation and productivity since they would feel no â€Å"pressure from the top†, but a little control from the leader is needed. Workers needed to be guided, always been given directions, and should be lead from the front by the leader. I lacked in this area, but certainly overcoming the loops is the best solution ever. I will tend to become more competitive, leading the team, always engaging in all kin ds of meetings, giving clear directions to all, showing my leadership skills. Training and adopting an enthusiastic strategy would help. 3. Discuss your role on the team. I was in charge of the production department. My role was to engage in careful planning and analysis or evaluation of different strategies and product decisions of different products with the team. As the production in charge, I experimented with different strategies and production decisions and looked for their impact on the business in the long-run.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Orgnaizational Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Orgnaizational Behavior - Essay Example In general leadership refers to the use of non-coercive influence techniques. It is important to distinguish a leader from a dictator. Whereas dictators get others to do what they want by using physical coercion or by threats of physical force, leaders do not (Greenberg and Baron, 2003: pp 471). From the definition it is clear that leadership involves the exercise of influence for the purpose of attaining group or organisational goals. In other words, leaders focus on changing those actions or attitudes of their subordinates that are related to specific goals. They are far less concerned with altering followers' actions or attitudes that are irrelevant to such goals. (Greenberg and Baron, 2003: pp 471). Also, from the definition one can see that leadership requires followers that is leadership is a two way street. Although leaders do indeed influence subordinates in various ways, leader also are influenced by their subordinates. As a matter of fact one can say that leadership exists only in relation to followers. After all, one cannot lead without followers. (Greenberg and Baron, 2003: pp 471). Leadership style refers to the adoption of Authoritarian Management or a Democratic Management style by an individual in an organization, depending on which style is more comfortable to his or her personality. (Statt and David, 1999: pp 91). Leadership Styles Of Two Senior Member In My Organisation The leadership styles of two senior members in my organisation are as follows: The first senior member is primarily concerned with establishing good relations with subordinates and being looked by them. He/she engages in actions such as doing favours for subordinates, explaining things to them and taking steps to ensure their welfare. He is reluctant to act in a directive manner toward subordinates and often shy away from presenting them with negative feedback. The second Senior member on the other hand is concerned mainly with production and focuses primarily on getting the job done. The senior member engages in actions such as organising work, inducing subordinates to follow rules, setting goals, and making leader and subordinate rules explicit. The leadership styles discussed above can be linked as shown in the figure 2 below: Figure 2: Basic Dimensions of Leadership Behaviour. Taken from: (Greenberg and Baron, 2003: pp 471). From the figure above one can observe that though the leadership styles discussed earlier are far off from each other, these leadership styles often converge at times. For example, there are leaders who are both production oriented and at the same time person oriented. Some leaders can be 75% person oriented and 25% production oriented and vice versa. Also some leaders can score equal points for each of the two dimensions as well as some may not be found in any of the dimensions. That is they are neither person oriented nor production oriented. Likert's Four System approach. Following an extensive research at Michigan University, Rensis Likert came up with

William Blake, Romanticism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

William Blake, Romanticism - Essay Example Firstly, the poem â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell† somehow speaks of the goodness in all things even in those which people consider as negative. In the poem, the capital sins are regarded by Blake as good things to God: pride is glory, lust is bounty, wrath is wisdom, and nakedness if the work of God. This then somehow creates a pattern where the succeeding lines illustrate the same polarities between evil and good which are actually the same. Thus, following from the line â€Å"Excess of sorrow laughs. Excess of joy weeps†1, which means that things are not what they seem, it simply means that all lines in the poem are lines of contradictions too2.Therefore, following through from the line â€Å"Joys impregnate, Sorrows bring forth†3, one can conclude that joys will give people something negative and that sorrows will bring people something opposite too. This means that joys impregnate or somehow make someone pregnant, which is basically a bad thing if two people are not married yet. On the other hand, when someone says â€Å"Sorrows bring forth,† it means that perhaps sorrow brings someone â€Å"forth† or forward. This means that such a negative thing like sorrow may always be instrumental in advancing someone. Perhaps, it is because one learns much from sorrow as much as he learns from happiness. The meaning of the line â€Å"Joys impregnate, Sorrows bring forth† (Blake) is also evident in the historical context in which Blake’s â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell† was written. In fact, William Blake was born during a time when the Bible was glorified4. It was at that time that Blake started pointing out the inaccuracies and errors in the Bible in order to somehow educate the people and make them believe that the Bible was actually a mere creation of man. This was Blake’s protest against organized religion. Thus Blake, through his â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,† was able to instill in his readers

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Violence In Christianity And Islam Thesis Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Violence In Christianity And Islam - Thesis Example To a certain extent, one might point out that the religions which emerged on the latter stages of history often provided people with the tools to manage their aggression and refrain from violence. That is why one might suggest that the two notions, namely religion, and violence, are closely connected. Furthermore, the way they interact with each other is able to shed light on the peculiarities of the human nature. That is why it may be particularly significant to carefully examine an, compared how two different religions deal with violence in people. This paper will show that Christianity and Islam condemn violence, but have several provisions which are condition by history that justify it under specific and very concrete circumstances. While considering the moral framework of Christianity, one might think that there is no room for violence in it. Nevertheless, there are certain elements in this teaching which can prove quite the opposite. One of the most notable passages is taken from the Gospel of Matthew: "Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword" (Matthew 10:34). As one can clearly see, these words clearly indicate that there is a part of teaching of Christ that is not peaceful. However, just like many parts of this book, the passage should be interpreted properly. Of course, it does not mean that a good Christian should follow the example of Christ and live with a sword in hand. The latter is a metaphor which urges people to direct their violence at their sins and fight them without fear (Sullender 16). However, there are some parts of the Christian doctrine that deal with real, not figurative violence.

William Blake, Romanticism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

William Blake, Romanticism - Essay Example Firstly, the poem â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell† somehow speaks of the goodness in all things even in those which people consider as negative. In the poem, the capital sins are regarded by Blake as good things to God: pride is glory, lust is bounty, wrath is wisdom, and nakedness if the work of God. This then somehow creates a pattern where the succeeding lines illustrate the same polarities between evil and good which are actually the same. Thus, following from the line â€Å"Excess of sorrow laughs. Excess of joy weeps†1, which means that things are not what they seem, it simply means that all lines in the poem are lines of contradictions too2.Therefore, following through from the line â€Å"Joys impregnate, Sorrows bring forth†3, one can conclude that joys will give people something negative and that sorrows will bring people something opposite too. This means that joys impregnate or somehow make someone pregnant, which is basically a bad thing if two people are not married yet. On the other hand, when someone says â€Å"Sorrows bring forth,† it means that perhaps sorrow brings someone â€Å"forth† or forward. This means that such a negative thing like sorrow may always be instrumental in advancing someone. Perhaps, it is because one learns much from sorrow as much as he learns from happiness. The meaning of the line â€Å"Joys impregnate, Sorrows bring forth† (Blake) is also evident in the historical context in which Blake’s â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell† was written. In fact, William Blake was born during a time when the Bible was glorified4. It was at that time that Blake started pointing out the inaccuracies and errors in the Bible in order to somehow educate the people and make them believe that the Bible was actually a mere creation of man. This was Blake’s protest against organized religion. Thus Blake, through his â€Å"The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,† was able to instill in his readers

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Diverse Workforce Essay Example for Free

Diverse Workforce Essay Diversity means variety of something such as opinion, color, or style. It means discrepancy between two objects being compared. When workforce is combined, then it means different kind of workers working in the same company or industry. The differences or discrepancy can be laid in terms of age, sex, education, styles, race and others. Diverse workforce can be seen when a company has workers that have different roles, characters, profession, department, culture, color, race, and other criteria. In an automobile company, there are engineers, accountants, sales representatives, mechanics and other kind of personnel. This kind of setting shows how diverse workforce is being implemented by a company. For this paper, the objective is to explore and analyze the value of diversity of workforce. Specifically, the paper will determine the value of diversity in a restaurant and bar setting. The paper will try to justify if diverse workforce will be advantageous in the said industry. Diverse Workforce There are many companies that implement diverse workforce. One of these companies is McDonalds. McDonalds is the worlds community restaurant. According to the management of the company, they are proud of their long-standing commitment to a workforce that is diverse. They believe that development and maintenance of diverse workforce will lead to the strengthening of the McDonalds system. Moreover, the company emphasize that diversity at McDonalds includes the understanding, recognizing and valuing the differences that make each person unique. In diverse workforce, the company will able to foster innovation and creativity to better meet the needs of our diverse staff and guest base. The said workers settings will lead to sustain a competitive advantage, thus there must be a continuance to improve the productivity of our workforce by creating an inclusive environment where all staff members contribute fully and stay committed to serving and expanding the communities. Companies thought that in diverse workforce, every worker are having the chance to learn one another (Friedman, 2008). Diverse workforce environment will encourages inclusion, as it adds value to the given company or organization. The value is evident in every aspect of the organization: new ideas and perspectives, motivation, buy-in, retention and new sources of talent. Diverse workforce environment recognizes the value of a business environment that embraces individual differences, including those among our guests, employees, business partners and all others in the communities in which it operates, and is committed in creating and maintaining such an environment. This commitment is based upon the recognition and belief that diversity is critical to our ability to excel in an increasingly diverse and dynamic marketplace But what are the reasons why companies and industries tend to implement diverse workforce? It is evident that almost companies employee workers that have the same classification, meaning if a company is automobile manufacturing in nature, then it will employee more mechanical engineers because they are the one who are more specialize in this kind of industry. From the given statement, we can state that companies that does not implement diverse workforce has specific workers or they are specialize in their given profession while those who are not have general workforce (Chatman, 1998). People live in an age of knowledge, and firms that succeed are those that are best able to harness the collective knowledge of their employees. The collective knowledge of any group is enhanced by including people with different experiences and backgrounds. The knowledge of a homogeneous group consisting of, say, 100 white males with similar backgrounds remind one of the remarks often made about someone’s so-called vast experience (Chatman, 1998). Diverse Workforce Advantages (Detailed) For this part of the paper, detailed analysis will be done to explore the advantages of diverse workforce in a restaurant or bar business setting. When you care for a diverse population, a multicultural workforce can only strengthen costumer care quality. When someone wants to put up a restaurant or bar, that person must consider that his or her costumer consist of different people from different countries. This is an important factor as it widens the possible costumer of the said business. Thus, the products and services offered must be able to cater all possible costumers. For this, the kitchen part of a bar will hold big responsibility in achieving this goal. The kitchen must consist of workers with different duties and responsibilities. Every worker in the kitchen must have a specialization, meaning that there will be cooks, dishwashers, waiter and other roles. The cooks must have a wide range of expertise, meaning that they will not concentrate only in one menu, but must consider the variety of costumers to be able to serve what the costumer wants. The cooks must be from different countries because it combines the individual knowledge and experience to make up a better cook group. It is important to consider that individuals with different backgrounds, different ideas, and different life experiences will strengthen the team they belong. Because the proposed restaurant and bar must cater all walks of life, then there is a need of diverse workforce. This is because every idea of the workers will somehow create an opportunity to share their opinions to have higher quality food and services. The setting of the tables and chairs is one issue to be settled. The formation of tables and chairs must attract possible costumers to increase profit. But to have a better presentation of the chairs and tables, every personnel must have an opinion on to what is the best presentation of the chairs and tables (Tsui et al, 1992). Every worker will have different style and preference in connection with the arrangement of chairs and tables. With this, the owner must integrate all the opinions and will come up with a good formation (Stata, 1989). Politeness in the workplace must be expected and is imposed externally by any organization wishing to remain competitive. It is important to consider that there is a variation in culture of the workers thus they will have different traits and qualities when working. But there is higher level of success that emerges from harnessing the power of mutual respect and cross-cultural understanding. Mutual respect must spring from the internal structures of each individual. For this to truly capture the culture of the organization this must cascade down from the senior leadership to every level of the organization enhancing creativity, productivity and an emotionally safe environment (Wong, 2008). Another way where the advantage of using diverse workforce is seen is Conclusion After analyzing diverse workforce in a restaurant and bar business setting, the paper suggest that indeed diverse workforce has the reputation for integrity, quality and innovation and this will depends on the ability to transform the diverse experiences, perspectives and ideas of the employees into outstanding and high quality food serving catering services. As a concluding statement, two heads are better than one. The said statement can be applied in the main topic as it discusses the advantages of using diverse workforce over a homogenous workforce setting. It’s like a spider that has eight hand but all these hands work together to achieve something. Working in a diverse workforce environment makes bigger and challenges everyones business world. Gender, race, generational issues and other layers cause all to take a brand new look at personal prejudices and narrow-mindedness. At the same time, each new layer provides another wonderful opportunity to seek to understand before seeking to be understood. References: Friedman, H. H. (2008). Workplace Diversity: The Key to Survival Growth. Brooklyn College of the City University of New York Chatman, J. A. , J. T. Polzer, S. G. Barsade, and M. A. Neale (1998). â€Å"Being Different Yet Feeling Similar: The Influence of Demographic Composition and Organizational Culture on Work Processes and Outcomes. † Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.43, 749-780. Stata, R. (1989). Organizational Learning The Key to Management Innovation, Sloan Management Review, Spring, 63-74. Tsui, A S. , T. D. Egan, and C. A. O’Reilly III (1992). â€Å"Being Different: Relational Demography and Organizational Attachment. † Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 37, 549 – 579. Wong, H. A. (2008). Best practices in Diversity strategies and initiatives. National Diversity Conference, H Z Wong Associates Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Edible History Of Humanity By Tom Standage History Essay

Edible History Of Humanity By Tom Standage History Essay Book report on an edible history of humanity by Tom Standage. Tom Standages book regarding edible history of humanity gives us numerous pictures of looking at the past. The book approaches history in a different way altogether: as a sequence of changes caused, influenced or enabled by food. Throughout history, food has not only provided sustenance but has also acted as the catalyst of societal organization, social change, economic expansion, military conflict, geopolitical competition and industrial development. Since the time of prehistory to present, the stories of these changes form a story that encompasses the entire human history. The foods first transformative role was the basis for entire civilizations. The taking in of agriculture enabled new settled lifestyle and put mankind on the path to the modern world. However, the staple crops that aided the first civilizations hardly and the wheat in the near east, rice and millet in Russia, potatoes and maize in America were not simply revealed by chance. Instead, they came out through a multifaceted process of co-evolution because preferred traits were chosen and propagated by the early farmers. These crops are in effect, development; intentionally cultivated technologies that existed only as a result of human intervention. Adoption of agriculture as a story is the narration of how early genetic engineers came up with powerful and new tools that made progress itself possible. In the process man changed plants and eventually the same plants in turn transformed people. By offering the platform through which civilizations could be founded, food then acted as a social organization tool, helping to structure and shape complex societies that came up later. The religious, political and economic structures of the early society, right from hunter-gatherers to the very first civilizations were based on systems of food production and allocation. The production of agricultural food surpluses as well as the coming up of irrigation systems and communal food storage fostered political centralization with agricultural fertility rituals developing into state religions and food becoming a medium of taxation and payment; feasts were used in garnering influence and show status; food handouts were used in defining and refining power structures. Allover the ancient world before money was invented, food was a sign of wealth and ability to control food was power. With the emergence of civilizations in various parts of the world, food aided to connect them together. Food-trade routes acted as inter-boundary communication networks that improved not just commercial exchange but religious and cultural exchange as well. Spice routes that spanned the ancient world resulted in cross cultural fertilization in fields which were diverse just like the field of architecture, religion and science. The first geographers began to take interest in people and customs from far places and compiled the first efforts at world maps. By far the biggest change caused by food trade was as a result of European need to avoid the Arab spice domination. The result of this was the revelation of a new world, establishment of first colonial outposts by the European nations and opening of maritime trade routes between Asia, Europe and America. As European nations tried to build global empires, the next big shift in human history was aided by food, a flow in economic development during industrialization. Potatoes and sugar just like the steam engine underpinned the process of industrial revolution. Sugar production on plantation on the West Indies was considered the first prototype of the industrial process that mainly relied on slave labor. Meanwhile potatoes overcame the first suspicion among the European as a staple food that yielded more calories than cereals from a given area of land. Together, potatoes and sugar offered cheap sustenainace for the workers who worked in new factories in the industrial era. In Britain for instance where the process first started, the upsetting question whether the future of the country lies in industry or agriculture was decisively and unexpectedly resolved by the Irish potato famine of the mid 19th century. Using food as war weapon is timeless; however large scale military wars of the 18th and 19th centuries elevated it to a new level. Food played a vital role in determining the consequences of the two conflicts that defined the USA, revolutionary war of 18th and 19th centuries as well as the civil war of 1860s. Meanwhile, the rise and fall of Napoleon closely connected his capacity to feed his large population of armies. The 20th century mechanization of warfare gave the impression that for the first time in history, feeding machines with ammunition and fuel became an important factor than feeding soldiers. However, food took a new twist, as an ideological weapon during the era of cold war between communism and capitalism, and finally helped to determine the result of the conflict. In the modern society food has become a battle filed for other issues, including globalization, development and trade. During the twentieth century the application of industrial and scientific to agriculture brought about dramatic increase in food supply and the corresponding increase in the world population. The green revolution led to social as well as environmental problems. However, without it there would have been a lot of famine in much of the developing world in 1970s. By making sure that food supply grows rapidly than the population, the green revolution opened the way for the amazingly rapid industrialization in Asia as the century came to an end. Because people in industrial societies consider having a smaller number of children compared to those in the agricultural societies, this in turn the peak of the human population near the end of the 21st century is now on sight. The tales of many personal foodstuffs, traditions and food related customs and the coming up of a particular nation cuisines, have already been narrated. Less focus has been given to the question of foods world-historical significance. This responsibility does not assert that any single has the key to understanding history; nor does it try to give a brief account of the whole history of food or the whole worlds history. It rather draws on a range of disciplines that include genetics, anthropology, genetics, economics, ethno botany and archaeology. It focuses especially on intersections between world history food histories. Asking a simple question; which foods have offered the most in terms of shaping the modern world and in which way? By taking a long term historical dimension also gives a new way to shed light on modern debates about food, like the argument surrounding the genetically modified organisms. The link between poverty and food, coming up of local food movements, use of p lants to make biofuels, effectiveness of food as a tool of mobilizing political support for a number of causes, and the widely accepted way of reducing the environmental impact of modern agricultural methods.