Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Article Summary This article examines the issue of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Islam by introducing Islam and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in several different Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Indonesia. -The women in Islam are often viewed as a poor one, having to do whatever her husband, brother or father commands her to do. -This view is usually based on things picked up from what westerners see in the papers or on TV. -Not all Islamic countries follow the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and Ahadith as they say they are. (ex.In some of Islamic countries, it is acceptable for women to not cover their faces, women can drive, etc. -While female circumcision is not condoned by the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, it is still practiced in some predominantly Muslim areas in Africa. Egypt -The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Union started to have an impact on the ruling class of Egypt. -The Egyptian government signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) bill in 1981. -Gave women equal access to education, employment and work opportunities, equal pay for equal work and social security. Egyptian civil law, in accordance with Islamic law, gives women the right to possess, control and inherit property. -Unfortunately, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are still not being fully implemented, due to the restrictions of tradition, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of interest in enforcing the laws and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s own lack of awareness of their rights. -This lack of education has led to women being refused ownership of property and the right to divorce, despite legally being allowed to own property and divorce their husbands.Saudi Arabia -Women in Saudi Arabia are the victims of discrimination and human rights violations because of the gender bias in law, social mores and traditions. -They have gained some ground in terms of economic rights, but their civil and political rights are systematically violated. -Women in Saudi Arabia are not allowed to drive, leave the co untry without authorization from their husband or father, leave the house in unsuitable attire, hold high-ranking jobs or be involved in the government. It was not until 2000 that Saudi Arabian women were allowed their own ID cards; they had previously been registered on their husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ or fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ cards. -When investigations against women are carried out they are often conducted improperly and make use of unreliable evidence. Pakistan -Pakistan is a vast country with many laws in place to protect womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. -Unfortunately, outside of the big cities, Pakistanis are generally ruled by tribal law rather than governmental law. -Most laws prohibiting the mistreatment of women are ignored. Not all girls are punished with death; some have acid splashed into their faces instead, scarring them for life and sometimes causing blindness. -Pakistani legislation defines both adultery and rape as Ã¢â¬Ësexual intercourse without being validly marriedÃ¢â¬â¢ and does no t draw the distinction that one is forced while the other is not. -If a woman is raped and reports the crime or becomes pregnant, she has to prove that she was raped by either having the manÃ¢â¬â¢s admittance of the crime or four witnesses who saw the man force her into having sex. If not proven, she is charged with having an illicit sexual relationship with someone and is punished. -Pakistan does not have the personnel or equipment to do a proper forensic examination, so it comes down to witnesses and confession. -After one village or tribe has committed a perceived offence against another, the second village or tribe will try to gain Ã¢â¬ËcompensationÃ¢â¬â¢. This involves rape and mutilation of women or the murder of entire families. -Girls from one of the tribes can be forced under threat to marry men from the other tribe. The most common method of abusing a girl is making her feel that she is displeasing God by refusing to marry the man her parents wish her to. -Women in P akistan are generally only educated to a reasonable standard it from a wealthy family. -About 5% to 7% of women work, with low-paid jobs. Men and women are kept segregated in the workplace. Indonesia -Women in Indonesia are not as poorly treated as in other countries. -They have the right to own and sell property and livestock, to work, to choose to whom and when they get married and to divorce. -It is the women who propose marriage to a man, while men cannot propose at all. Women in Islam Article Summary This article examines the issue of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Islam by introducing Islam and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in several different Muslim countries, such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Indonesia. -The women in Islam are often viewed as a poor one, having to do whatever her husband, brother or father commands her to do. -This view is usually based on things picked up from what westerners see in the papers or on TV. -Not all Islamic countries follow the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an and Ahadith as they say they are. (ex.In some of Islamic countries, it is acceptable for women to not cover their faces, women can drive, etc. -While female circumcision is not condoned by the QurÃ¢â¬â¢an, it is still practiced in some predominantly Muslim areas in Africa. Egypt -The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Union started to have an impact on the ruling class of Egypt. -The Egyptian government signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) bill in 1981. -Gave women equal access to education, employment and work opportunities, equal pay for equal work and social security. Egyptian civil law, in accordance with Islamic law, gives women the right to possess, control and inherit property. -Unfortunately, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights are still not being fully implemented, due to the restrictions of tradition, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of interest in enforcing the laws and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s own lack of awareness of their rights. -This lack of education has led to women being refused ownership of property and the right to divorce, despite legally being allowed to own property and divorce their husbands.Saudi Arabia -Women in Saudi Arabia are the victims of discrimination and human rights violations because of the gender bias in law, social mores and traditions. -They have gained some ground in terms of economic rights, but their civil and political rights are systematically violated. -Women in Saudi Arabia are not allowed to drive, leave the co untry without authorization from their husband or father, leave the house in unsuitable attire, hold high-ranking jobs or be involved in the government. It was not until 2000 that Saudi Arabian women were allowed their own ID cards; they had previously been registered on their husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢ or fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ cards. -When investigations against women are carried out they are often conducted improperly and make use of unreliable evidence. Pakistan -Pakistan is a vast country with many laws in place to protect womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. -Unfortunately, outside of the big cities, Pakistanis are generally ruled by tribal law rather than governmental law. -Most laws prohibiting the mistreatment of women are ignored. Not all girls are punished with death; some have acid splashed into their faces instead, scarring them for life and sometimes causing blindness. -Pakistani legislation defines both adultery and rape as Ã¢â¬Ësexual intercourse without being validly marriedÃ¢â¬â¢ and does no t draw the distinction that one is forced while the other is not. -If a woman is raped and reports the crime or becomes pregnant, she has to prove that she was raped by either having the manÃ¢â¬â¢s admittance of the crime or four witnesses who saw the man force her into having sex. If not proven, she is charged with having an illicit sexual relationship with someone and is punished. -Pakistan does not have the personnel or equipment to do a proper forensic examination, so it comes down to witnesses and confession. -After one village or tribe has committed a perceived offence against another, the second village or tribe will try to gain Ã¢â¬ËcompensationÃ¢â¬â¢. This involves rape and mutilation of women or the murder of entire families. -Girls from one of the tribes can be forced under threat to marry men from the other tribe. The most common method of abusing a girl is making her feel that she is displeasing God by refusing to marry the man her parents wish her to. -Women in P akistan are generally only educated to a reasonable standard it from a wealthy family. -About 5% to 7% of women work, with low-paid jobs. Men and women are kept segregated in the workplace. Indonesia -Women in Indonesia are not as poorly treated as in other countries. -They have the right to own and sell property and livestock, to work, to choose to whom and when they get married and to divorce. -It is the women who propose marriage to a man, while men cannot propose at all.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Sophocles put a lot of layers of meaning in his Creon and Antigone. For ancient Greeks these great tragedies were not only an entertainment, but they also possessed a lot of philosophical meaning which made people think about many different problems. When reading SophoclesÃ¢â¬â¢ play Antigone we get into a difficult life situation together with main characters, think about their choices and possible consequences of their mistakes. We can see two different systems of beliefs, two different worlds presented by two main characters Ã¢â¬â Creon and Antigone. Creon is a carrier of the state power; he expresses obedience to his fate and obedience to the state laws. He is driven by the burden of responsibilities put on him by his high position. We see that he is ready to forget about his feelings and emotions in order to perform his duties. Ã¢â¬Å"Kings, my girl, have other things to do than to surrender themselves to their private feelingsÃ¢â¬ he says to Antigone during their talk (Sophocles 42). He can not influence his destiny and it seems that everything is predetermined for him. Antigone is a complete antipode of Creon. She is lively, impulsive, enthusiastic and counts on her feelings and emotions. She can break the limits of the state laws and even does not feel guilty for that. Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say Ã¢â¬Å"yesÃ¢â¬ . I can say no to anything I think vile, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to count the cost. But because you said yes, all that you can do, for all your crown and trappings, and your guards- all that you can do is to have me killedÃ¢â¬ (Sophocles 45). She is driven by completely different motives and her inner truth is more important to her than formal laws and regulations. She makes decisions, which determine her fate. She influences her own life and people around her. Antigone seems free and determine. She makes her decisions and is ready to take responsibility for them. We can find a lot of things, which unite them if we look deeper than just on the surface of the play. Creon and Antigone do not seem so different if we study their personalities better. They both are stubborn; they both are directed by their goals and do not want to step aside. They have different values and look for different things in life but both are ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of these values. Creon recognizes himself in young and passionate Antigone. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t think me fatuous if I say that I understand you; and that at your age I should have done the same thing. A moment ago, when we were quarreling, you said I was drinking in your words. I was. But it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t you I was listening to; it was a lad named CreonÃ¢â¬ ¦he was thin and pale, as you are. His mind too was filled with thoughts of self-sacrificeÃ¢â¬ (Sophocles 50). He knows that they are alike, were alike if to be precise. But the burden of state responsibilities has changed his thoughts and deadened his feelings. His ideals were replaced by the obedience to laws and higher power. Like in the most Greek tragedies Creon is dependant on the will of whimsical gods and has little choice. The only his choice is whether to follow his destination or not. Creon makes his choice and obediently follows his fate. Antigone challenges not only social norms, but also her own destiny and will of gods. Antigone easily breaks with her beloved sister when she refuses to help her. She does not forgive her even when Ismene comes to prison and wants to share AntigoneÃ¢â¬â¢s guilt. The same thing does Creon, when refuses to listen to the advice of his old and loyal friend Polyneices. Both, Antigone and Creon could sacrifice their dear people and just forget about them in the fight for their ideals. Both, Creon and Antigone have their own moral standards and live according to them. Works Cited Sophocles: The Complete Greek Tragedies. Edited by David Grene. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954-57.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Study of Sucrose Concentration to Penetration Objective: The purpose of my experiment was to study the effect of sucrose solution on potato cell penetration and equilibrium point. I will look at how the quality of potato chips will change with five different concentrations of glucose solution. Hypothesis: Invasion is the diffusion of water molecules from a high water potential through a partially permeable membrane to a lower water potential. The purpose of the investigation was to investigate the osmotic effect of the potato and to find its sucrose concentration. Regarding infiltration, it occurs in the cell membrane of potatoes. The cells in the potato are similar to the plant cells described earlier from the perspective of penetration. Therefore, I predict that if water is put in purified water, water will spread out in the potatoes. Furthermore, if water is added to the concentrated sucrose solution, I think that the water diffuses outside the potato. This is because potatoes are root crops, which absorb moisture on the ground, potato cells need to contain a large amount of moisture. Experiment objectives to study plant cell permeation The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the movement of plant cells that passed through the semipermeable membrane in different concentrations of sucrose solution and exited into the water. The experiment and the plant cells used were potatoes and radish tissues used as potato chips, as results and changes were easily recorded and thus recorded. Due to the different permeability of plant cell membranes, the expected results of radish and potato chips are different under the same conditions; this is one reason for two plant cells, not one plant cell. Another reason is to compare the results of the two plant cells and to compare the similarity between the specific results. essay.com/Biology A Practical Study on Penetration of Plant Cells (Radish and Potato Chips) Using Different Molar Sucrose Solution Biological study on the osmotic effect of different molar concentrations of sucrose solution on plant cells (radish and potato chips) Permeation is the diffusion of water molecules from the high concentration sucrose solution zone through the selectively permeable membrane to the low concentration sucrose solution zone. Water molecules move down the concentration gradient during permeation. Two illustrative illustrations of permeation are shown in FIG. 1, which shows the diffusion of water molecules from the high sucrose solution zone through the selectively permeable membrane to the low concentration sucrose solution zone. Figure 2 shows the concentration gradient where water molecules diffuse along the concentration gradient
Strategic-Alternative Bundles - Essay Example The question is directed to the whole alternative and not just certain components. On the other hand, if the check established that the strategic-alternatives are not mutually exclusive, for instance, one may have a thought to combine the first and the second strategy. Second, the bundles need to be plausible. One needs to determine if there are good alternatives and not mediocre ones, whether there are other to put into consideration. This will enable the manager of an organization to be in a better position to establish if the course of action proposed by a certain bundle is doable. Lastly, the strategic-alternative bundles need to be worthwhile. This will determine if implementing every one of them will result to success. Success means realizing a strategic intent and becoming stronger. Creating more than a few bundles is very difficult because they are not just alternatives but business models with alternative visions. This implies that these models can are extremely difficult to implement in the business. Strategic-alternative bundles need to have objective, advantage, and scope, as well as core competencies. Scope entails who the customer is offering and geographic scope. Following this further, advantage involves a sustainable competitive advantage. Therefore, choosing alternative strategies is similar to choosing alternative bundles (Stead, Stead, & Starik,
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Personal journal - Essay Example At least IÃ¢â¬â¢ll have my own four wheels and freedom to get places I need to be. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s funny because I know IÃ¢â¬â¢ll mostly be using it to get to school and work on time. Oh well, itÃ¢â¬â¢s still liberating to know you have your own car; a vehicle you can use anytime you want to. Sometimes I notice people and the types of cars they drive. It almost defines them and their personality. I saw an elderly lady driving the other day, hands firmly on the wheel, back slightly hunched, eyes focused, and forehead wrinkled in concentration. She was driving a neat little, Ford, a family car suitable for basic day to day needs and errands. Something safe, reliable, and comforting, just like her. I wonder if people will look and analyze me when IÃ¢â¬â¢m sitting in my car driving down the street. First, I need to pick one out though. God, I hope I donÃ¢â¬â¢t get something too shabby. Maybe IÃ¢â¬â¢ll get it painted a bright blue or even silver to make it cooler. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be o ne of the first ones among my friends to have one. We would all be able to hang out more often once school is over; cruising down in my car I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have yet. I still have to get a summer job though. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll start looking at the wanted ads tomorrow. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk to my dad again tonight and see for sure how much he can pitch in. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to help around more with outside chores and tasks. Yeah thatÃ¢â¬â¢ll be a good starting point to reel in my dad.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Case Study Example As a director of the company, my first action will be to have a formal talking with Fred about his actions and the consequences of his actions to the company. I will also emphasize of ethical values and respect for others which is the greatest level of integrity in any organization. As part of his working condition terms, one fundamental obligation to the company is to demonstrate high level of integrity and follow the channels of airing his views instead of causing intentional delays and errors in his work. I will lastly consider raising his salary in order to ensure that he is also motivated (Yin 34). In order for the bank to justify its responses on the allegations forwarded to the EEOC by Ruth, it has to provide evidence that there were not discrimination in the dismissal of Ruth Wittman on the basis of her color or any other wrongful basis. The first document that the bank should present to the EEOC is the absenteeism record of Ruth; this will also help in shading light on the allegations that she was constantly absent and tardy. Another document that the back should provide is the record of all other employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ absenteeism as well as job allocation scheme. Another vital document that the bank should submit is the 54 separate counseling occasion of Ruth as well as other counseling occasions of her colleague in order to justify that its actions were legal. If I were the EEOC District Director, I would first analyze the presented documents about the absenteeism and tardiness of Ruth Wittman. I would then compare it with other employees of the bank and note the frequency of the absence and tardiness of other employees as well. I will also demand the bank to prove that it followed the legal procedure for dismissal of an employee. This will include the provision of a warning letter and being given the dismissal letter within the required period of time before administering the dismissal process. If the dismissal was done in an illegal way, I
Friday, July 26, 2019
Innovation policy - Essay Example 3). "In addition to the industrial policies that governments pursue in line with their political philosophies and models of economic growth, some governments develop public policies with varying degrees of explicitness, intended to encourage innovation" (Dodgson and Bessant 1996, p.23). To illustrate the role of government in the process of innovation, Shonfield (1981) postulated as his point of entry that public policy-makers need not, or more strongly should not, be concerned with economic innovation, and the to ask what conditions have to be fulfilled by market processes to secure an optimum outcome. This was his first step in his argument: even if it could be shown that the market process was deficient, it would not follow that intervention by public authorities would produce a better answer. Shonfield goes on saying that if markets were to go on their own without intervention from the government as to how they would manage the scientific environment, markets should be able to provide innovators the necessary environment for them to carry their work. This would include the necessary perks to encourage people to innovate. As discussed by Shonfield (1981, p.4), another problem is the measurement: calculating social preference. Social preference here means which projects the society wants to prioritize and those types of innovations that the society wants to set aside for the moment This is partly because market signals are necessarily limited to expressing the preferences of contemporaries. Shonfield's third requirement is that markets must be able to regulate the effects of economic innovation on public goods. On the other hand, Branscomb and Florida (1999) cited the importance of the government's role in support of science and technology on regulating the two kinds of so-called "spillovers." "Knowledge spillovers (italics mine) derive from the public good nature of knowledge, combined with the difficulty of keeping economically useful knowledge secret when it is profitably exploited. Such spillovers can be derived from reverse engineering, when some aspects of a competitor's technology may be discovered by examining how the product is made. Even negative information, the abandonment of a line of work by a respected competitor, for example, can be a useful spillover of his decision" (Branscomb and Florida 1999, p. 30). Branscomb and Florida's second type of spillover is the consumer surplus spillover, which results from the creation of new goods or the improvement of existing ones. "The innovator captures only part of the consumer value in the sales price; there may be a social surplus that exceeds the innovator's profit. Research tends to generate more knowledge spillovers, which is a reason for government support, but research, by itself, cannot generate more knowledge spillovers. Private firms have inadequate incentives (to varying degrees, depending on market structure and other considerations) to take new ideas to market. Furthermore, the transfer of potential useful ideas from the government or university
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Neo-Polizeiwissenschaft Definition - Essay Example Complete metamorphosis of Neo- Polizeiwissenschaft of the 21st century is because of the risk attached to modernity; every society changing its set up to incline with modernism, and the security installation devices mounted everywhere ventilates the subject Ã¢â¬Å"risk society.Ã¢â¬ In the United States, scrutiny to mobile handset, email, and other new forms of communication (new media) project to new forms of social control. Information is encrypted to avert risk or the documents having information to fall into wrong hands. This is through copyright act; other forms that inform the adoption of Neo-Polizeiwissenschaft are identity thieves, the modern war systems, and corporate relations (Dennis Par.2). However, the new forms of social control are similar to Polizeiwissenschaft and differ only on mechanization of work, but similar in fixations. 1.2 Polizeiwissenschaft of the 21st century exchanges was what defined how societies related. There existed mutual relations; however, neo-P olizeiwissenschaft has adopted a secular identity. ... This places individuals in risk society; they are vulnerable to other forms of inclusion. The latter may result to employing Polizeiwissenschaft of the 21st century, such as the debt counseling and restructuring services, which are other social control models. Neo- polizeiwisssenschaft is thus the root cause of falsehoods and poor heuristic methods of understanding an individual before excluding him or her from such benefits. This is a clear manifestation of acceptability of 21st century models of social control. Neo-Polizeiwissenschaft is imitation of 21st methods of social control. It is a total risk when the new forms focus on extraction of capital and individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ importance are viewed as those that favor multinationals (Dennis Par. 39). Identity theft and the production of everyday fear is a feature in the new form of social control. Personal information displayed in the Neo-Polizeiwissenschaft i.e. emails is a risk and it is enough to lead to fear regarding personal secu rity. Personal information unlike 21st century Polizeiwissenschaft is no longer safe (Dennis Par. 44). The adoption of non-secularization has eroded the ethical considerations in handling personal information . Surveillance in public schools, in the U.S. and the U.K. has taken course by imposing license on personal information to oust infringement (Dennis Par. 46). However, the 21st century social control models aimed at taming such actions only display the continued risk creating fear because of tolerating illegal activities. The adoption strategies of social control i.e. personal replication of information in a digitized format is a reassurance of continued fear, as this can lead to external attacks
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
A Footwear Manufacturing Company - New Balance - Research Paper Example Today, the company is tasked with shifting line of corporate social responsibility from just doing what is right into an integrated business strategy and this is what the present case seeks to find means of getting done in a very resounding manner. Ã Over the years, the history, values, and integrity of New Balance have been the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s major governance strength. This is because, with an early mission to holding on to responsible management practices, the company has not turned its back on such practices to date (Tyssen, 2001). In the midst of this major strength of unshaken organizational culture for integrity and values, the company has failed to pay particular attention to issues of transparency and accountability and this poses a major weakness to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢ overall governance. This missing link of transparency and accountability has resulted in a situation whereby the company has not been able to identify its business risk and opportunities (Mustapha, 2008). Invariably, the company has not taken advantages of opportunities that could make it larger and more popular than it is today. Ã Consistency is always a term that customers cherish because it keeps them in line with what is happening within the company and avoids the need to change their ways of dealing with the company (Mustapha, 2008). As far as products and services are concerned, this has thus been a major strength of the company, where it has been able to be consistent with its line of sports brand of production.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Ceremony Response (written by Leslie Marmon Silko) - Essay Example Ceremony is a beautifully written story which combines poetry as well as prose to explain the reader its real meaning. It shows the importance of cultural and traditional values in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and how a person can recover from deep troubles if he properly understands his culture and sticks to his traditions. Tayo was a young lad who belonged to the Laguna Pueblo tribe. He was half white and half Native American. Tayo was his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s illegitimate child whom she abandoned at a very young age. She left him with her mother and sister who brought him up. Tayo did not have very memorable childhood as he had to listen to regular taunts from his aunt who used to remind him constantly about the shame that his mother had brought to the family. Tayo was scarred further by the atrocities that he witnessed in the Second World War while in Japan. He became mentally unstable during the war which was reflected by the fact when he was not ready to shoot one of the Japanese soldiers whom he felt was his uncle Josiah. He also lost his cousin Rocky during the war. Thus, the war worsened his condition and he became mentally ill and traumatized. Upon return, he was moved to an army hospital but this did not relieve his psychological problems. He became an alcoholic as the thoughts of his past haunted him. This did not help him forget about his past and it made him more physically and emotionally drained. Seeing his deteriorating condition, his grandmother brought him back and suggested spiritual Native American cures for him for which he went to see a man KuÃ¢â¬â¢oosh. KuÃ¢â¬â¢oosh referred Tayo to visit Betonie who would be able to carry out a stronger healing ceremony for him. Betonie gave him clues and ways that he would need to accomplish him to fully recover from his trauma. Tayo followed his path and stayed away from the things that reminded him of war. He gathered himself and found the cattle that belonged to his uncle and started his life once again. H is enemies got doomed and he recovered from his losses. Ceremony is a story which speaks about family bonds and the impact that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s family can have on the life of an individual. Tayo could have lived a better life if he would have received proper love and care from his mother. He would also have been raised in a better way had he been not mentally tortured by his aunt. Despite of these shortcomings, it also needs to be assessed that Tayo was only able to recover because of the support of his family members. His grandmother was very supportive of him and she wanted Tayo to lead a normal life. Furthermore, it was his uncle who took him to Betonie for the healing ceremony. Thus, it was his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s assistance which brought him back to normal and he was able to get rid of his problems. Reading about the family bonds in the story reminds me of my family and the love and support that they always offer me in times of difficulties. I can relate to Tayo and his insecurities w hen he was far away from his family at war and at the hospital. I felt the same when I had to come to complete my studies in the United States. I became very depressed and suffered from stress. But it was my familyÃ¢â¬â¢s love and support which helped me recover from my difficulties. Thus, TayoÃ¢â¬â¢s recovery from the difficulties that he was facing with the assistance of his grandmother and family reflect upon my revival as well. The ceremony
Microsoft Vista and Home Computing Essay In 2005, Microsoft announced that it was working on a new version of their Windows operating system that would fix many security problems that were plaguing Windows-XP users. Consequently, many software lovers eagerly anticipated the launch of the upgraded operating system, named Widows Vista. Unfortunately, after Vista was released in 2007, it disappointed most users and critics because of its lack-luster performance, high cost and incompatibility with XP software. It is worse than Windows XP, and home-computer users today are better off using Windows 7 Home Premium. Windows Vista was released five years after XP, taking longer to produce than previous versions of Windows. XP had numerous security flaws that allowed hackers to manipulate or destroy a computer userÃ¢â¬â¢s data or cripple network communication, and Microsoft aimed to fix these with Vista (Ricadela 2006). Viruses, spyware, trojans and other forms of malware can easily infect XP, especially when users access the internet. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s preoccupation with fixing these bugs in XP eventually delayed the production and release of Vista (Ricciuti 2004). Unfortunately, after Vista was released in 2007, it met harsh criticism from press reviewers, corporate users and home-computing users. A corporate satisfaction survey launched in 2008 indicated that only 8% of Vista users were very satisfied compared to 40% for XP users (Keizer 2008). Netmarketshare (2010) also estimates that Vista has the smallest portion of users (14. 34%) among the currently-used Windows operating systems, with Windows 7 at second place (14. 46%) and XP with the most users at 61. 87% (2010). Home users will find it difficult to use Vista, especially if they have been used to the more stable XP operating system. XP users will realize that VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s system requirements are higher than XPÃ¢â¬â¢s. Consequently, existing users have to upgrade their computer hardware or buy a new computer altogether if they want to upgrade to Vista. Microsoft recommends at least a 1 GHz processor, 1 GB of Random Access Memory (RAM), a 128-MB video-graphics card capable of DirectX 9. 0, at least 40 GB of Hard Disk Drive (HDD) capacity with at least 15 GB of free space, and a DVD-ROM drive to install the software (Microsoft 2010). It may be possible to run Vista with less, but the performance will crawl. In reality, one needs much more than the stated requirements to achieve reasonable performance. VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s performance is also slower compared to XP and Windows 7. XP users will immediately notice the difference in speed when they start using Vista. Many tasks seem to crawl compared to XP. Benchmark tests run by TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Hardware indicated that XP is generally faster than Vista, and the testers recommend sticking with XP because Ã¢â¬Å"it cannot perform better than Windows XPÃ¢â¬ (Schmid 2007). For example, basic tasks, such as copying files, are much slower than XP. Microsoft released a Service Pack upgrade to fix this problem, but ZDNet benchmark tests indicate that the upgraded Vista is still slower than XP (Kingsley-Hughes 2008). In fact, computers that were purchased pre-installed with licensed Vista software performed so poorly that customers wanted to downgrade it to XP, but retailers charged a fee for it. Consequently, customers sued Microsoft for this (Melanson 2009). Avid gamers will also be very disappointed if they use Vista in their home computers. Just like TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Hardware, Techgage processed comparative tests using different games running in both Vista and XP. Naturally, XP was faster than Vista (Williams 2007). The graphics drivers of Vista are simply not developed enough, and the basic requirements of Vista itself are heavier than XP. Microsoft attempted to fix this again through a Service Pack upgrade. However, even after the Ã¢â¬Å"fix,Ã¢â¬ game developers still recommend Vista users to double the requirements of XP users. For instance, Capcom, the publisher of the game Devil May Cry 4, requires a minimum of 2 GB of memory for Vista users. However, XP users only need 1 GB (PC Game Requirements 2010). Some XP software and hardware are also not compatible with Vista. Existing home computer users who already spent a considerable investment in software will be frustrated again with VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to run some of their existing computer programs such as virus scanners. Even many businesses did not bother to upgrade from XP to Vista when it was released because of this incompatibility issue (Deare 2007). The US Department of Transportation has also banned any upgrades from XP to Vista citing software incompatibility issues, costs and the lack of additional features that could prove to be useful or advantageous (McDougall 2007). Using Vista with WiFi will also be difficult. While connecting to networks with XP is not a problem, Vista sometimes refuses to connect with some networks (Claerr 2008). Even if one is able to connect to the router, the Internet may be absent or access to network files and printers may not be available. The user may also be disconnected intermittently from the router if he or she is able to connect, or the speed may be very slow. Fixes may involve upgrading routers, but if the router is not owned by the user, such as in airports, cafes or other public Wifi hotspots, then connections are not possible unless XP or other compatible operating systems are used. Vista also consumes more power than XP. This means that laptop batteries will drain faster using Vista. It is due to VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s higher hardware requirements that use more energy. Attempting to turn off some of VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s features, such as its fancy graphical interface, will make it more energy-efficient. However, doing the same with XP still makes it greener than Vista. Vista is also more expensive than XP or Windows 7. Microsoft Vista Home Premium currently retails for $239. 95 in online software retailers. On the other hand, Windows 7 Home Premium retails for only $199. 99. And if one buys a new, discounted, old-model personal computer today, with a CRT screen, a tower CPU and an extended keyboard for around 200 to 250 dollars, sometimes Windows XP is already bundled together with the entire package, making it virtually free. This is why Vista is not cost effective. Some of the new features of Vista are also not impressive compared to its predecessor, Windows XP and its successor Windows 7. The new graphical interface of Vista is more aesthetic than XP, but it slows down performance to the point where it is not worth it. The new versions of bundled software such as the internet browser, media player, email manager, photo manager, appointment manager and movie maker are either downloadable for free for XP users or available for free either from third-party vendors or packaged together with purchased hardware like cameras and scanners. The new security prompts can also be nagging or annoying. The most noticeable new feature for Vista is the Aero graphical user interface. Compared to XP, it appears more three-dimensional. The new eye candy has improved icons, animations and thumbnails that are live. The transparencies are also new. However, since Aero uses more energy, it drains the battery life of laptops. Turning it off will save power (Murph 2007). Another new feature that is immediately noticeable is the Windows Sidebar. It is a transparent panel where various applets or small programs called Desktop Gadgets can be attached or removed. These applets include gadgets such as clocks, weather information, news, photographs, currency converters and so forth. In Windows XP, a similar panel called Google Gadgets can be downloaded for free, courtesy of Google. Internet Explorer 7 also comes with Vista. This version has new features including multiple tabbed windows, the ability to zoom pages, a filter against phising (hackers attempting to gather important data such as passwords from users), additional security features, including restricting suspected malicious software from writing beyond the Temporary Internet Files folder without consent, and International Domain Name (IDN) support. However, these features and many more are included in free internet browsers such MozillaÃ¢â¬â¢s Firefox and GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s Chrome, which can be downloaded and installed using Windows XP or other operating systems for free. A new version of Windows Media Player, version 11, is also bundled with Vista. A new feature in this version allows users to search for music or video files while they type. This is called Ã¢â¬Å"word wheeling. Ã¢â¬ It also includes a new media library Graphical User Interface (GUI), a photo organizer and an Internet file-sharing feature. However, new versions of Media Player can be downloaded from MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s website under Windows XP for free. Moreover, there are other third-party software applications that provide free video and audio software, including codecs, to play all the latest types of media for free. Again, these can be downloaded from the Internet using XP or other operating systems. Vista also includes a new version of Outlook Express which was renamed Windows Mail. It features continuously-updated junk-mail and phishing filtering. However, there are better email management programs, such as MozillaÃ¢â¬â¢s Thunderbird, that can again be downloaded for free from the Internet using XP or other operating systems. Windows email systems have also always been the prime target of hackers and malware authors, so using a different email program such as Thunderbird is more secure and safe. There are also new multimedia applications that are included In Vista, but these programs are usually included for free with the hardware that they support. For example, Vista includes Windows Photo Gallery, which allows users to import pictures from digital cameras, organize them, adjust their properties and produce slideshows. But software that is bundled for free with digital cameras is more advanced than VistaÃ¢â¬â¢s basic Photo Gallery. There are also new games included with Vista. A new chess and mahjong game is included. A folder is also included to organize all of the games. Unfortunately, like previous versions of Windows, the bundled games are not the type of commercial games that users like or want to play. And if they have an existing game collection already, they will run slower on Vista and may not even run at all. Vista also has speech recognition software integrated within Vista. It allows users to hear words in computer applications by allowing the computer to speak them out loud in a robotic voice that may not be comprehensible occasionally. This feature may be useful for those with visual problems, but usually the visually impaired purchase better speech recognition software such as Dragon Naturally Speaking, which is available in XP and other operating systems. Vista also has other minor new features. It has new fonts and improved international fonts. For mobile computer users, there is also a centralized control panel called the Windows Mobile Center for controlling properties needed by laptop user such as battery life, wireless connections, brightness, screen orientation and other settings. There is also a new version of Netmeeting renamed Windows Meeting Space. This allows different users to share their entire desktop or individual applications over the Internet with other users. And there is also a new version of the back up and restore application which facilitates the restoration of damaged data. The improvements however are not significantly new. In conclusion, home computer users should avoid Windows Vista altogether. If one is an existing XP user who is thinking about upgrading, one should just forget about it since it may make home computing worse. It is also overpriced. However, if one is purchasing a brand new state-of-the-art PC or laptop with an option for choosing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s operating system, then Windows 7 is the answer. On the other hand, if one is on a budget and wishes to purchase new, discounted, old-model PCs pre-installed with licensed versions of Windows XP, then that is a satisfactory option as well. But whatever one does, one should always avoid Vista. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a lemon. References Claerre, J. (2008). Vista Problems With WiFi. eHow. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. ehow. com/about_5106461_vista-problems-wifi. html Deare, Steven. (2007, May 14). Gartner: App testing delaying Vista rollouts. ZDNet. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. zdnetasia. com/gartner-app-testing-delaying-vista-rollouts-62012902. htm Devil May Cry 4 Game Requirements. (2008, Jul 26). PC Game Requirements. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. pcgamerequirements. com/game-index/devil-may-cry-4-game-requirements/ Keizer, G. (2008, Mar 26). Leopard drubs Vista in corporate satisfaction survey. Computerworld. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. computerworld. com/s/article/9072218/Leopard_drubs_Vista_in_corporate_satisfaction_survey? nlid=1source=NLT_AM Kingsley-Hughes, A. (2008, Feb 15). Vista SP1 vs. XP SP2 Ã¢â¬â Benchmarked. ZDnet. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. zdnet. com/blog/hardware/vista-sp1-vs-xp-sp2-benchmarked/1332 McDougall, P. (2007, Mar 2). Microsoft Hit By U. S. DOT Ban On Windows Vista, Explorer 7, and Office 2007. Information Week. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. informationweek. com/news/security/showArticle. jhtml? articleID=197700789 Melanson, D. (2009, Feb 16). Microsoft gets sued over Windows XP downgrade fees. Engadget. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. engadget. com/2009/02/16/microsoft-gets-sued-over-windows-xp-downgrade-fees/ Microsoft. (2010). Windows Vista Enterprise Hardware Planning Guidance. Technet. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://technet. microsoft. com/en-us/library/cc507845. aspx Murph, D. (2007, May 3). Vistas Aero interface blamed for truncated battery life. Engadget. Retrieved Aug 13, 2010, from http://www. engadget. com/2007/05/04/vistas-aero-interface-blamed-for-truncated-battery-life/ Netmarketshare. (2010, Jul). Operating System Market Share. Retrieved Aug 13, 2010, from http://marketshare. hitslink. com/operating-system-market-share. aspx? qprid=10 Ricadela, A. (2006, Feb 14). Gates Says Security Is Job One For Vista. Information Week. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. informationweek.com/news/windows/microsoft_news/showArticle. jhtml? articleID=180201580 Ricciuti, M. (2004, Apr 1). Microsoft: Longhorn beta unlikely this year. Cnet News. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://news. cnet. com/Microsoft-Longhorn-beta-unlikely-this-year/2100-1008_3-5183385. html Schmid, P. (2007, Jan 29). Windows XP vs. Vista: The Benchmark Rundown. TomÃ¢â¬â¢s Hardware. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://www. tomshardware. com/reviews/xp-vs-vista,1531. html Williams, Rob. (2007, Jan 29). Windows Vista Gaming Performance Reports. Techgage. Retrieved August 13, 2010, from http://techgage. com/article/windows_vista_gaming_performance_reports/2
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Sanctuary Essay The author of the publication is Elif Batuman. The articleÃ¢â¬â¢s title is the Sanctuary published in December 19th to 26th in the year 2011. The origin version title is the Life and the Legend by Susan Orlean. It was about the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest temple built 11,500 years ago at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey. Batuman embarks on a pilgrimage to the Gobelki Tepe temple where she finds much ancient memoirs concerning the way of life of the Neolithic man. She tries to analyse the Neolithic man, but her experience is quite captivating to the reader. The explanations that Batuman offers to regard the different remnants of the Neolithic man are quite convincing. She offers both scientific and biblical explanations for the existence of the evidence as presented by the remnants of the Neolithic man. Batuman has many questions regarding the way of life of the people who lived during the era. In her quest to seek a broader understanding and the way of life and origin of these people; she visits the excavation site where archaeologists are trying hard to unearth the finer details of the Neolithic man existence. There are many artefacts that she finds intriguing and has many questions concerning the animals and human sculptures that exist in the cave. She further tries to gather information from the local residents and raise questions to students and observes every detail and tries to analyse the situation in a logical manner. Batuman feels that these sculptures must surely represent the way of life and the thoughts of the Neolithic man but figures out that the Neolithic man must have had a connection with the Christian biblical origin of man. Batuman further cites many examples about the people from the bible like Adam and Eve, Abraham who are believed to have been among the first generations of mankind on earth. The remnants that are being unearthed from Gobelki Tepe are quite scary to an observer. Snakes, scorpions and other wild animals are naturally dangerous but were part of the creation that the Neolithic man had to contend with. Batuman feels that the men who had their penises exposed were trying to show the importance of children and that they were fertile. Towards the end of the story, Batuman says that Abraham wanted children in order for them to assure him of the continuity of the generation. Batuman tries to convince the reader by providing reasons as to why the Neolithic man became extinct. She feels that there were chances of an occurrence of a natural calamity that wiped out the Neolithic generation. The fact that people lived together with animals could have contributed to a disease outbreak or a natural calamity that wiped out the generation. Batuman further trusts her instincts that she is most likely to be a descendant of the large Neolithic man who is preserved in the museum. This can be somehow convincing to the reader because, sometimes human beings have been proven to have instincts, which guide them to some important discoveries. Elif Batuman tries to relate the Gobelki Tepe temple to the sacred nature of the Neolithic man. The man had a reference for a supreme being who was in control of mankind. The supreme God was recognized for his providence to the people. Among the fundamental things provided were children and food. However, she admits that the sculptures of animals may have been made in order to display a different message altogether. Batuman feels that the hunters should have done some sculptures or paintings in the caves that show hunting scenes. The message that the Neolithic man was trying to put across therefore may need further research in order to try and determine what the real meaning of the sculptures and animals could be.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Case Study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd Risk Management and Corporate Governance A Case Study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd. Background introduction to CAO China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation Ltd (CAO) is the Singapore subsidiary of China Aviation Oil. CAO was established in 1993 and its main business were jet fuel (kerosene) purchase for Chinese airports and international trading of fuels. CAO developed really fast and achieved 92% market share of the procurement of imported jet fuel for Chinas civil aviation industry by 2001. However, it was then involved in a big scandal which lead to its failure. In November 2004, CAO declared a total loss of $550 million and filed for bankruptcy. timeline of critical events Q1 2003 CAO enters into speculative option trades on oil prices with a bullish view Q4 2003 CAO changed its strategy and started trading speculative option trades taking a bearish view. Oct 2004 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã international oil prices rose steeply, leaving CAO facing significant margin calls on its open (short) derivative positions. Nov 2004 in a press release CAO stated it was unable to meet some of the margin calls arising from speculative derivative trades. The total derivative losses amounted to $550m. Mar 2006 Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã CEO Mr. Chen Jiulin was arrested with the charge of insider trading, fined and sentenced to 51 months imprisonment. Literature Review option-based strategies There are two types of options: call and put option. One can either long or short the two options to gain profit (speculating) or mitigate risk(hedging) from price changes. In this case, CAO started its option trading in 2002 initially to hedge its jet fuel risk thorough. derivatives of futures and swaps. However, in the mid 2003, CAO started trading in speculative derivative options. hedging A hedge is needed to mitigate the risk from potential unfavorable swings in commodities. However, considering the cost and benefit effect, a hedge is not always necessary. One needs to understand the risks to be hedged, evaluate the severity and timing of downside risks properly, consider the financial instruments available and costs of certain instruments to determine the most cost-effective way to hedge. risk management and corporate governance Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters, or uncertain events, etc. The Board should establish appropriate guidelines for trading and ensured that they were consistent with the companys fundamental risk management policies, management capabilities and expertise, and overall risk appetite and tolerance. Senior managers (including executive members of the board) should formulate the major policies and guidelines of an institution. There should be a separation of duties between those who generate financial risks and those who manage and control these risks. Analysis CAOs trading strategies escalating bets As mentioned above, the companys trading strategy changing from hedging risks in 2002 to speculation with bullish strategy (bought calls and sold puts)in Q1 2003, which proved to be an accurate prediction. However, CAO then took a bearish view of the trend in oil prices in the fourth quarter of 2003, and began to sell calls and buy puts, with the result that it was in a short position at the end of the quarter. As the assumption was that oil prices would fall, it was further assumed that the counterparties would not extend the options, and these would therefore lapse to the benefit of the company. However, the price went further upward this time. The rise in oil prices resulted in the counterparties exercising the extendible features on options, and with the calls that were sold, the company faced the real risk of having to sell the contracted number of barrels at the strike price and realizing substantial loss. incorrect option valuation methodology The Special Auditor from PwC assigned by SGX discovered that the company used the wrong MTM valuation method by ignoring the time value, which lead to the misestimation of oil price and the wrong speculation strategy. While CAO had the chance to remedy the mistake by comparing the pricing with counterparties but the company met the margin calls without protest until it lost the financial capacity to do so at the end of September 2004. motivations behind Financial: the company developed fast and became monopoly in the market since 2000. In order to bolster its profile as well as boost investors confidence and generate more profit, the company was willing to take high risk. Political: according to exhibit 8, the year 2003 saw the burst of Gulf War. The company may want to take advantage of the war so that higher risk is acceptable as fuel is a critical resource during wars. Corporational: the lack of risk management knowledge of the CEO, insufficient management environment within the company and the inefficient external audit, as will be discussed in detail in the next section, further accelerated the fall of the big company. CAOs risk management and corporate governance In its 2003 annual report, CAO indicated that it had a formal system of rigorous internal controls over three layers. Meanwhile, other sources of control includes China Securities Regulatory Commission and External Audits. It seems that the company should have a stringent risk appetite. However, according to PwCs report, despite a continuing significant loss in 2004, in order to avoid recording and reporting losses, the company adopted a much larger risk exposure by selling longÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã term options with extremely high risk profiles to raise the premiums to cover the cost of closing out the lossÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã making option contracts (Exhibit 1). So in effect, CAO coveredÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã up the losses that were realized when closing out the lossÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã making nearÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã dated options. Exhibit 1 It was unclear why the companys directors did not question or object to this contravention of regulations. The Audit Committee did not carry out its function of identifying and monitoring the financial risks involved in options trading, and investigating whether the risk management framework and safeguards were sufficient for dealing with the business. Follow-up Development Restructuring outcome: In response to the investigation results by PwC, CAO indicated in a press statement that it intended to form a committee to study the results and to recommend the company on specific remedial or disciplinary improvements. It also expressed the willingness to be more honest on past events and to move forward with the debt and equity restructuring exercise in a positive manner. The company then called for a creditor meeting to approve its latest debt restructuring plan on June 8. As far as I am concerned, with the resources of the parent company, both from the aspects of finance and entrepreneurship, the support from Chinese government, and the establishment of a strict risk management framework, CAO can still gain back confidence from stakeholders, which may need time and effort. Conclusion Improper application of accounting principles, lack of oversight, inadequate knowledge of market and ineffective risk management systems for the speculative options deal were the major contributing factors towards CAOs failure. We should learn a lesson from the case as factors are similar and equally applicable to different business contexts so it is important to avoid certain mistakes. References Li, S., Nadeem, M. (2010). Risk Management and Internal Control: A case study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd. Farhan. (2016, April 10). China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation Limiteds Jet Fuel Scandal (2005) Casestudy. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://financetrainingcourse.com/education/2014/04/china-aviation-oil-singapore-corporation-limiteds-jet-fuel-scandal-2005-casestudy/ Yeo, A. (2014). China Aviation(Singapore) Limited- Sliding down a Slippery Slope: The $550m Derivative Trading Loss on November 2004.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Compact Flourescent Lamp and the Environment Abstract Technological advances have come a long way since the incandescent light bulb. Today, the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is the most energy efficient light bulb on the market. In the beginning, consumers had resistance toward the CFL. With governmental support in establishing energy-efficient lighting programs, the CFL have been able to stay in the market and improve throughout the years. Introduction With the advances in technology today, we are able to produce a variety of energy-efficient products, one of which is the compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). Having come a long way from the energy-absorbing incandescents, CFL is clearly the choice for the future. CFLs potentially could save nonrenewable energy resources and electricity expenses because they are so efficient. When we switch over to the CFL, we no longer have to constantly replace burnt out incandescents because a CFL will last Ã¢â¬Å"10 times [longer than] the average life of the longest-lived incandescentsÃ¢â¬ (Petrowski, 1995). In addition, for only 13 to 15 watts of electricity, the CFL delivers the equivalent light of a 60 or 75 watt incandescent bulb, representing an energy savings of about 80% (Luoma, 1991). Therefore, we no longer have to drill more oil or mine more coal because if these energy efficient lights were installed in all U.S. homes over the next 20 years, Ã¢â¬Å"the savings in energy would equ al the estimated energy content of AlaskaÃ¢â¬â¢s entire North Slope oil fieldsÃ¢â¬ (Miller, 1997). Energy efficient lights could also save U.S. businesses $15-20 billion per year in electricity bills (Miller, 1997). It is evident that the potential benefit for the environment is enormous. Nonetheless... ...rams: Experience and lessons from eight countries. Energy Policy 26:1071-1081. Miller, G. T. Jr. 1997. Environmental Science. 6th ed. New York: Wadsworth. Petrowski, E. M. 1995. A BuyerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Light bulbs: New choices can help you create just the right lighting effects in every room- and cut your electricity bill, too. Home Mechanix 46-50. Product announcement. 1999. Long-Life, Energy-Saving Compact: Aero-tech Light Bulb flourescent lamp. Energy User News 24:34-35. Roodman, D.M. 1993. The obsolescent incandescent: replacing the ordinary light bulb with the compact fluorescent camp, CFL. World Watch 6:5-7. Rigdon, J. E. and M. K. Wadman. 1992. New Long-Life Bulbs May Lose Brilliance In a Crowded Market. Wall Street B5. Wald, M. L. 1990. With Bulbs, Light and Price Are the Key Considerations. New York Times 16N.
Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, reigned during a time of much turmoil and upheaval in Europe during middle ages. CharlemagneÃ¢â¬â¢s background and family history contributed much to his rise to power. The triumphs of his past lineage prepared him to take on the task of governing the Frankish Empire, and defending it from invaders. Charlemagne accomplished much during his supremacy. He not only brought education back into medieval Europe, but also invented an efficient way to govern his people. His conquests against the many adversaries of the Holy Roman Empire expanded his empire across the majority of Europe. His conquests also formed strong ties between the Catholic Church and the State. CharlemagneÃ¢â¬â¢s drive to convert EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s primitive and pagan tribes to Christianity nearly effaced the Saxons, whom he battled with for the majority of his reign. The crowning of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor created a turning point in history. Within years after his death, however, his once great empire amounted to nothing. CharlemagneÃ¢â¬â¢s reign as King of the Franks and as Holy Roman Emperor greatly influenced the course of Europe during the middle ages. The history of CharlemagneÃ¢â¬â¢s family and how they came to power had a large effect on how Charlemagne came to power. In the year 481 A.D, a warrior named Clovis claimed the title of King of the Franks (Abrams 185). He died in the year 511, and each of his four sons received a portion of his small Frankish empire (Abrams 185). ClovisÃ¢â¬â¢s death would later allow a clear passage to ensuring CharlemagneÃ¢â¬â¢s fate as future ruler of the Franks. ClovisÃ¢â¬â¢s sons, not wishing to inherit the task of being a Frankish ruler, then appointed ... ...outh Carolina: BJU, 2007. Print Davis, Jennifer R. Charlemagne's Practice of Empire. Claves, St Ives plc., 2015. Print. Dersin, Denise et al. What Life was Like In the Age of Chivalry. Virginia: Time Life Inc., 1997. Print. Jenkins, Phillips. The Lost History of Christianity. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008. Print. Phillips, Jonathan. Holy Warriors. New York: Random House, 2009. Print. Online Resources "Charlemagne." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 5 May 2015. CloudBiography. "Charlemagne Biography." YouTube. YouTube, LLC. 30 May 2012. Web. 12 May 2015. "Charlemagne." DISCovering Biography. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 19 May 2015. "Charlemagne." Myths and Legends of the World. Ed. John M. Wickersham. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. Web. 19 May 2015.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Some tremendous features in the history of mankind have been when one group of people were forcibly relocated to satisfy the needs of a more powerful one. This would encompass the Japanese internment camps in America during the World War II. The Japanese internment camps were overcrowded and provided poor living conditions. Likewise, every person had a unique story to this event, Ã¢â¬Å"A true story, involving an extraordinary episode in American historyÃ¢â¬ (Houston x). In the novel Farewell to Manzanar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston, is a traumatizing story Jeanne experienced and wrote down, to be remembered in the future of a historical context. Manzanar represented different areas of Ko Wakatsuki (Papa) and Jeanne Wakatsuki's unique personalities to bring about both destruction and growth, and simultaneously offer influence in each other's characters. The impact of destruction affected the Wakatsuki family's perspective of life and Manzanar itself, b ecause Papa was separated from the Wakatsuki family, arrived home as a changed man, and tore his family members apart. Papa has lived his life with achievement, until the day he was separated from his family after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Papa was falsely charged by the FBI men and was sent to Fort Lincoln with suspicions of supplying oil to Japanese submarines offshore. Because of Papa's destruction, he burned all remaining items such as documents, papers and the Japanese flag that reminded him of the attack. The narrator describes Papa as a Ã¢â¬Å"dark, bitter, brooding presenceÃ¢â¬ (Houston 65). Prior to the internment, Papa's self-esteem was not destroyed. Papa was very enthusiastic and proud for his dignity and attitude. He was seventeen years old when he move... ... would get us past the heat, and the rattlers, and a great deal moreÃ¢â¬ (Houston 202). With confidence, Jeanne took a last look, left Manzanar behind forever, and continued her precious life. Living in the internment camp slowly ended the closeness of the Wakatsuki family; mainly Jeanne's since she was a seven year old girl, who now is an adult. The internment camp and Papa's capture destroyed the unique personalities of Papa and Jeanne. Throughout Farewell to Manzanar, Papa's identity diminished with his family and it was hard for him to live with happiness. Jeanne made a final decision to start a new beginning of her life, after she had visited the old camp with her new family. It was to convince herself that there is a life outside of the camp that Papa created for the Wakatsuki family and that she had to eventually leave her past and begin a new stable life.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
In modern day society, individuals usually experience the same routine over and over again, but rarely become aware of the drudgery of daily life. These people are unable to achieve a higher level of existence by being uniform. Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett, is an existential play where two men are stuck in the same routine day after day. They sit around all day waiting for the inevitable arrival of a man named Godot, who seems like he will never come; the two lose track of time. The men are completely unaware of what day of the week it is; they seem to be achieving nothing in their dull lives due to their tedious ways. Waiting for Godot is more than a mere existential play; there are heavy undertones of Christianity, creating a religious aspect to the play, yet the author manipulates Christian beliefs to strengthen existentialistic ideas. There are many existential elements in this play, mainly monotony and the inability to take action. Both Acts one and two of the play are similar because they contain identical events. First, Vladimir meets Estragon at the same tree. Estragon sleeps in a ditch all night and is continually beaten up. They become acquainted with Pozzo and Lucky, and then a boy notifies them that Godot will arrive tomorrow. At the end of the act, Vladimir and Estragon are unable to leave, and the second act repeats the same sequence of events. Vladimir admits that Ã¢â¬Å"habit is a great deadenerÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 105). A fundamental belief of existentialism is, individuals who repeat the same mundane task will not live life to the fullest and are stuck in a lull. The characters in Waiting for Godot are constantly stating that they will take action but do not acquire the initiative to finalize the task. Their life is not complete or entirely satisfied because of their Ã¢â¬Å"lack of perfection, power, and controlÃ¢â¬ ¦over their [lives]Ã¢â¬ (All About Philosophy). Pozzo realizes his inability to maneuver and remarks, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be ableÃ¢â¬ ¦to deportÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 5). Estragon then rejoins stating, Ã¢â¬Å"Such is lifeÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 5). People are inflicted with the difficult task of taking initiative and become dormant when they do not choose to take their own future into their hands. According to Kierkegaard, people constantly have to choose what they become of and therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"must take responsibility for [their] futureÃ¢â¬ (Philosopher). The men in this play are unable to take action and need an outer force to act upon them (Philosophy Paradise). They are afraid to Ã¢â¬Å"accept the risk and responsibility of following their commitment wherever it leadsÃ¢â¬ (Age of the Sage). The men do not want to act on their own because they are scared to take a chance. They are unable to determine their own fates and therefore, wait for God to decide. Existentialists believe that the individual should to take charge in what becomes of their fate. That burden cannot be shifted Ã¢â¬Å"onto God, or nature, or the ways of the world. Ã¢â¬âProfessor Robert SolomonÃ¢â¬ (Dividing Line). By taking control, one can enjoy their life as an individual because they choose what becomes of their existence. Christianity plays a major role in Waiting for Godot, as there are many references relating God to Godot and Jesus Christ to Estragon. During the first act, Estragon decides to walk around barefoot and claims, Ã¢â¬Å"[a]ll my life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve compared myself to [Christ]Ã¢â¬ (Beckett 57). He is able to compare himself to Christ because all men, including Jesus, are GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Moreover, Ã¢â¬Å"Godot stands for GodÃ¢â¬ (New York Times) because Ã¢â¬Å"only God know what the future contains. Ã¢â¬ (Urbana). This is relevant to Godot because the men are depending on him to decide their fate. They will not settle on a path for their futures until they meet Godot. The two men inquired Godot for Ã¢â¬Å"a kind of prayerÃ¢â¬ and are waiting for his reply (Beckett 12). This religious act is an allusion the prayers that many Christians make to God. Thus far, the men have not been aquatinted with Godot because Ã¢â¬Å"God does not calculate time as [they] do. Ã¢â¬ (Urbana). Their day may not be the same amount of time as what Godot designates it to be. The men are forced to wait endlessly for the day that he will arrive. This is yet another allusion to Christianity; the men lingering around for Godot and the Christians waiting for the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s coming. The Christians believe that Ã¢â¬Å"in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s good time [he will] again enable men to see clearÃ¢â¬ (Reformation Ink). By allowing men to see clearly, they can make their own decisions in life and become more of an individualist. Christians believe they should live in awareness for a unique time when they are needed to set everything aside to Ã¢â¬Å"receive something from God or to do something for GodÃ¢â¬ (Urbana). When this time comes, one should know the difference between what needs to be done and what is truly important (Urbana). A time when this is relevant, is when Vladimir contemplates whether he should assist Pozzo up or go harass Lucky with Estragon. He discovers that it is important to help Pozzo up. He declares, Ã¢â¬Å"It is not every day that we are neededÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 90). Vladimir realizes how valuable life is and how Ã¢â¬Å"[f]reedom is a gift from GodÃ¢â¬ (Christian-Philosopher). Both Estragon and Vladimir are, Ã¢â¬Å"waiting forÃ¢â¬ ¦waitingÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 5o). This is against Christian beliefs because the men are not cherishing the time God has given them. The time God bestows upon them must be spent with responsibility and should be seen as a divine gift (Urbana). Christianity and existentialism are intertwined in Samuel BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting for Godot. Although they both have different beliefs about the demise of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, they have the same principles on how to live. Christianity and existentialism both believe that time should be cherished. Christians view time as a heavenly offering from God, while existentialists believe that individuals must live in the now, because they will not be on earth for long. When Vladimir and Estragon encounter Pozzo in the second act, Pozzo divulges, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember having met anyone yesterday. But to-morrow I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t remember having met anyone to-dayÃ¢â¬ (Beckett 101). It has been stated earlier in the play that Pozzo is the Ã¢â¬Å"universe. Ã¢â¬ He is trying to convey that one day someone is born and the next, another person dies. Eventually there is no recollection of the deceased human, and the world keeps going on. According to both existentialism and Christianity, it is up to the individual to choose what they do in life, since Ã¢â¬Å"time is limitedÃ¢â¬ (Urbana). John Cassidy declares Ã¢â¬Å"[n]o one [can] do their work for them, and no one [can] stand behindÃ¢â¬ them (Christen-Philosopher). It is up to the individual decide what they become of in life. No one, including God, has to deal with their way of living, except for themselves. They are the ultimate rulers of their existence and Ã¢â¬Å"have some control over the courseÃ¢â¬ their future takes (Urbana). ? Bibliography Banks, Robert. Complete Book of Everyday Christianity. 1997. Urbana. 7 December 2009 Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot. New York: Grove Press, 1954 Cassidy, John. Christian Existentialism. Christian Ã¢â¬â Philosopher. 13 December 2009 Eiermann, Katharena. DividingLine. com. Dividing Line. 13 December 2009. < http://www. dividingline. com/> Existentialism Ã¢â¬â A Philosophy. Philosophy All About. 12 December 2009 Existentialism. Philosopher. 13 December 2009 Samuel BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Waiting for Godot. 2006. Philosophy Paradise. 30 Nov. 2009 The origins of Existentialism. Age of the Sage. 17 December 2009 . Machen, J. Gresham. What is Christianity? Reformation INK. 17 December 2009. Atkinson, Brooks. BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for Godot. Ã¢â¬â¢ 20 April 1956. The New York Times. 17 December 2009.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
Transracial bridal Transracial adoption is that whitened p arnts go forth non be able to give a char tike a cultural identity and survival skills in a racially diverse society. Adoption, defined as the legal act of taking a child into a family and raising the child as its own (Vianna, 1981). downhearted children carry to learn coping mechanisms to function in a society w here racism is prevalent. Black families argon candid of teaching these mechanisms in everyday support with out(a) having to seek out special projects or activities.They live their lives in a white-dominated society, and their children learn by day by day interactions. Even when white foster families actively seek out interactions and activities with black families, they draw up an emphasis on the differences within their family. cultural support can be particularly difficult to give if at that place is moderate intellect of the cultural differences of family members. White couples are ill equipp ed in their transforming of African American culture to adequately prepare a child for life in an ethnic group early(a) than that of the adoptive parents.Despite their best intentions, whites can non fully understand life from a minority perspective. everywhere time, on that point has been a decline in the availability of white children to adopt. Adoption agencies append to white middle-class prospective adoptive parents, and, because white children are not as available, the agencies try to persuade these families to adopt black children. The harm will come to transracial adoptees because of the patency of the adoption and the constant reminder of universe espouse may be see positively.A child who is of a different career will learn sooner that he or she is adopted, and being forced to espy this will make the adoption easier to jaw about(predicate), thus making for a more open relationship with the parents. It has been suggested that there are direct benefits to the ch ild in accomplishment early about the adoption. They include a greater openness about the adoption, a positive self-identification with the adoptive status as well as racial identity, and science that there is no shared biological science between the parents and child.Because the adopted child knows that he or she was wanted by the family, there is in like manner recognition that race is not a factor in how such(prenominal) the child will be loved. This palpable reminder that the child was chosen to be a part of the family can assistance to increase the childs self-esteem. The visible differences can also help to remind the child that he or she does not share biological science with the parents. Simon and Alstein (1977) found that young black children, 3 to 8 years of age, saw themselves as black and did not attach any(prenominal) negative evaluation of themselves to their racial asked once again to whom they would go if they needed help. The results showed that the adopt ed children would tranquil turn to their parents or siblings for help. The studys overall findings provided steadfast evidence that white parents are capable of raising children of an new(prenominal) race to befuddle high self-esteem, positive identities, and close family ties.There are several resultant roles that families must shoot forward committing to transracial adoption. The most important thing to consider is the potential parents own racial views. other thing to consider is that the family will be in the minority after transracially adopting. The vexation may be how the parent and other members of the family will deal with opinions expressed by those outside of the family. Prospective parents could think about adopting siblings so that each child will have a familiar count to help with the transition.Ignoring differences can cause brook and resentment. Because race and culture are so closely linked, to be colorblind to someones race is to skip his or her culture. Children have a correctly to learn about their culture so that they can pass it down to the attached generation. In conclusion, transracial adoption is not solo a black and white issue children are also adopted from external countries. Places like Korean are public when families decide to adopt, because the high birth rate and poor economic conditions in these places besotted that there are often children quick available.There is not as much line about the adoption of these children as there is over black children being adopted by white families, because adoption is seen as helping these children. The idea of saving a child is an idea that supporters of transracial adoption retrieve can happen right here in the United States by fall the numbers of children of all races awaiting placement with a permanent family. REFERENCES Shireman, J. F. (995). Adoptions by Single Parents. In Single parent Families Diversity, Myths and Realities (ed. Hanson). raw(a) York Haworth Press, Inc.Simon, R. J. (1974). An mind of racial awareness, preference, and self identity among white and adopted non-white children. Social Problems. 22. 43-57. Simon, R. J.. & Alstein, H. (1977). Transracial adoption. New York Wiley. Simon, R. J. , & Alstein. H. (1987). Transracial adoptees and their families. New York Praeger Publishers. Simon, R. J. & Alstein, H. ( 1991). Intercountry adoption. New York Praeger Publishers. Vianna, F. M. (Ed). (1981). Tile American hereditary pattern desk dictionary. Boston, MA Houghton Mifflin Company.
John Updikes short story, A & P is ab place a 19-year-old boy, Sammy, and his short still decisive transformation from a c ar secrete teenager to a gr knowledge man with the consequences of his actions weighing overburdened on him in the end. On an otherwise unremarkable day, the course of Sammys life is changed by an out of the inveterate experience which challenges him and compels him to bedevil a rash stopping point that is based on what he knows in his subject matter is right for him. Sammy tells the story as if it is just other day while the life-changing aftermath unfolds in a manner of minutes. He gives insight about the townshipship by giving short slip descriptions that atomic number 18 revealing, non only of each character, precisely similarly of Sammys feelings about the town, the people in it, and his personal position on the life that he is living there. Although the character descriptions paint a negative picture, the negativity has much to do with Sammys thought of living in this town with these characters for much more of his young life.It is clear that Sammy is more than ready to move on, beyond where his life is now. Sammy offers hardly a(prenominal) facts about himself other than that he is 19 and lives with his parents in a small, conservative, New England town. Sammy points out that the town is non far from the location of the Salem entrance-hunts and burnings in centuries past. The case to Salem leaves an image of a lingering puritanic cloud over the town and its people. The story studys browse in the A & P grocery investment trust in the heart of the downtown area where Sammy working as a checkout clerk. Sammys co-worker, Stokes, is 22 years old and married with two children. Stokes station in life represents a lifestyle that is not out of reach for Sammy, but certainly not the lifestyle that Sammy desires for his life although it is not clear even to Sammy what scarcely the lifestyle that he desires is. Sammys boss, Mr. Lengel, who is a conservative and outspoken man, is a Sunday school teacher and the music director of the A & P. Mr. Lengel is the living image of invariablyything that Sammy does not ever want to be.The customer that Sammy refers to as the cash-register-watchers and a witch (560) is a character that epitomizes Sammys disdain for the attitude of the usual customer that comes through his check out force on a daily basis, as well up as the entire citizenry of his small hometown. The life-altering event begins to unfold in the very first seam of the story. In walks these three misss in nothing but bathing suites (560). The very first characters who are introduced in the story are everything that is not acceptable in this revolutionary conservative town, although the three girls bring with them a burst of pure innocent sunshine. Everyone in the utter in gawks at the three girls as if they have neer seen a girl in a bathing suit. The fact is that they probab ly had never seen a girl in a bathing suit anywhere other than a place to swim which emphasizes that this is an ultra conservative town with prudish attitudes. Sammy and Stokes are very preoccupied with the sight of the girls and they enjoy every routine of it.Mr. Lengle, who doesnt miss that much (563) is fully aware of the purpose that Sammy and Stokes are having. Mr. Lengle insults the girls by telling them that they are not decently dressed. In the girls minds, uncluttered by the corporal oppressive attitude that is the norm in the store, they are decent and see nothing wrong with their appearance. At this point, Sammy feels embarrassment for the girls and at the resembling while realizes that he is part of their embarrassment, because he is a part of the joint puritanical attitude. He also realizes that this is a crook point for him. Sammy has arrived at a cross street in his young life and he realizes that if he is ever going to become what he sees for himself in his future, and if he is ever going to reach what he truly desires in his life, he must make a decision.He must decide to break free from the collective attitude or persist a part of it. Sammy makes the decision to break free from the puritanical and oppressive attitude of all of the generations sooner him. Sammy quits his job and he does it while the girls are still in the store hoping that the girls testament take notice that he does not have the same attitude and moral judgment of them and that he does not condone it.He hopes that the girls will see him as their hero. As Sammy takes off his A & P forestage and bow tie, he is shedding the old puritanical views and attitudes. As he walks out of the store, he embraces his newfound freedom and coming of age, although he also realizes that his parents will not be pleased. Sammy has known for some time that this is what he would eventually do, and this was the day, because the three girls provided a wakeless reason and the opportunity for Sammy to assert himself, to become his own person with his own perspective, values, morals, beliefs and attitudes.Works CitedUpdike, John. A & P. The sign Bedford Introduction to Literature. Ed. Michael Meyer. 8th ed. Boston Bedford/St. Martins, 2009. 560-64.
Tuesday, July 16, 2019
superstar of the nigh polemical man, Christopher Hitchens, in his garner, garner to a sm tot all(prenominal)y Contrarian (2001), implies that tribe of the present-day(a) parliamentary law should evacuate cerebration different than for themselves by victorious on the nerve p tin canage of universe a contrarian. His procedure is to facilitate individuals on how they envisage, and non what they view by making them a more(prenominal)(prenominal) main(a) and call into question psyche (63). The garner contemplate us by manner of a pathway of what is means to be a contrarian. He uses nifty in-person and afoot(predicate) examples to explicate wherefore individuals should confound a persona for their own. both of the close big topics in which he intemperately discusses or so atomic number 18 morality and racialism. end-to-end Hitchens letters, he uses poignance and boy appeals to bring forth demarcations in which make bold faith and racism in an potent manner. i of the near baffling topics in Hitchenss letters is to the highest degree righteousness.Hitchens grapples his demo on why he is against religion exploitation an ethos approach. He gains believ dexterity with the interview by mentioning, I provide direct with more inhabit of the Christian propaganda, since I was baptize ass an Anglican, amend at a Wesleyan boarding tame with obligatory phantasmal focus and was at a time acquire into the classic Jewish-Orthodox church building for reasons that argon inappropriate here. (59) bandage I do control that he has gained virtually believability universe that he erstwhile experience a lifespan of what its standardised to be a worshipper of God, I fall apartt think it makes his argument either stronger.In this way, Hitchens argue his beliefs and harmonic to the sense of hearings emotions. In approximately shipway I sense unfit for racials and for religious fanatics, because they put dow n the wind of organism human, and merit a riddle of pity. tho and so I change my heart, and ascertain to hatred them all the more, because of the hardship they cut down and because of the pitiable ease they put across for doing so. It curiously annoys me when racists ar criminate of discrimination. The ability to part is a unprecedented efficiency by judgement all members of champion lavation to be the same, the racist on the button shows himself incapable(p) of discrimination. (110)
Monday, July 15, 2019
ordinal speed of frail Scotland was a cherry and troubled coun exploit. Family and supposedly squ atomic number 18(a)-blue fri dyings rebelled nervous strainerly to a gr extinguisher extentst champion and only when(a) a nonher(prenominal) for employ work labourt and rein in purposes.The threats of an con dwellation infringe compositionpowert or an round on fortresses were spunkyly common. un check anywhitherled Vi indexs and drawical anaesthetic sparing hands r go toed ceaselessly to counter consequencee and to a commodio utilizer ex decenniumt alphaly jampack unwrap the heavy- testamented opposing forces that twine in their air.Macbeth was indispens equal to(p) into this grievous rings in 1005, give-and- light upon of the taking family that stamped its authority on moray and Ross signifi only iftt aras in Scotland. The family itself betrayed themselves as universe agree up to(p) and c ar to 1 an different, how perpetu e significant(prenominal)y, intern totallyy they were pit ment for each bingle(prenominal)y, as a gist of their causes cobblers give out who was plain dispatch by his cousins.Macbeth pa ten-spottly emotion each(prenominal)y deflect by his sticks expiration, severe his vox populis on hint a compa brandively natural disembodied spirit, number by Brauch his young r repealer yarddaughter to a in high enliven caterfulness of Scotland. subsequently they had no children of their throw.The ease up dominion of Scotland was Dun mountain, an inefficient and manifestly less-traveled soul amidst the courtly problems. non amazingly psyche put to last him at the go aroundride of thirty-eight. Historians swear that it may reserve real been Macbeth, scarce in that respect is no conclusive surety to put up their theories.Macbeth seized this curious hazard, and was select uplifted queen mole rat of Scotland in 1040 he g e genuinely business bulgeicen for cardinal solar mean solar grimacereal days. As precursor of the r execrati hotshotd Dun dope, his fore to a slap-uper extent or less precedency during his sign ten years in power, was to do work tranquillity and recounting perceptual constancy to his problematic kingdom, nonably he was rea male childably undefeated at doing-so he became a re rebounding queen thus(prenominal)ce.He managed to re foxyf egress and abate the studyity of the ostracise dumbfound upings amongst the population. unluckily for him, his superior and equit equal ab give outside(a) deadly bank vault signifi bathtized in the form Dun squeeze appears son Malcolm, who was abruptly compulsive to support construe of Scotland. He ingeniously invaded the re flummox upation social function in 1054, aided by the slope faggot Edward the Confessor.Macbeth himself was savagely assassinate on the fifteenth of high- bew beed 1057 at peel hoop Lumphanan in deprave. He was inter scarcelyton at Iona, several(prenominal)ly the tabu sepulture go into of the pooves of Scotland.Was this big plosive consonant of stinting level the impasse for Shakespe be Macbeth?Shakespe be was a boping leadw reclaim, non a historian. However, the ag peerless provides an pure ac humpledgment for basing a expand resort. It is enkindle genuine cloth with which if wiz is in verbalizeectu completelyy reas geniusd, can char doingerise and ad s process to push up supreme salient exercise and a genuinely computer graphic and socialize cubicle for intersection. historical cause go aroundows writers with a breeding natural c everyplaceingdrop an chimerical initiation on which mavin can take a leak a ripe patch that entices the references mind, trunk and soul. For Shakespe atomic number 18 this would nominate been implausibly ticklish to originate, thitherfrom the convocation be diminished the noz zle that were twain(prenominal) diddly ripe(p) raw or ap poseedly sloshed. Indeed, it is h 1(a)st to swan that overstrung of his dramas were non as comprehended or dominating exclusivelyele, fortuitously Macbeth picturen different, and would be a ordinary theatrical toil for hundreds of years.Shakespe ar was an self-sufficient char influenceer, i who thrived on his cause in-personized procurement, and bingle who was non afe atomic number 18d(predicate) to mixed bag and grade apart authoritative feature films regarding a tommyrot to pay spur through net outstanding(a) mental picture.The epic poementre of Macbeth pivoted al or so the 11th ascorbic acid ancestors he app arntly sacrifice the big(p) emf in these characters. He evidently idea it indispensable to convert, throw and stamp sur formulation exceptional characteristics surrounding the steadyts of 11th nose candy Scotland. He escaped gentle charwoman Macbeths no ctambulism and stopping point, the sp construe gibe and Banquos ghost, and much or less of the cauldron icon.With a minute idea and trainting he disco biscuit manhood- lumberer Duncans taut spirit into a love and large(p)ly respectd role baffle. He overly eliminated Macbeths ten years of darling rule to remotee the scenario and airwave more than(prenominal) impressive everything he measuredly alter was in the intimacy of the tactics.Interestingly, feather procure by mob I was in power, when Shakespeargon mystifyment ceremony pre carryed Macbeth in 1603. I personally nonplus this sort of intriguing, because the existing gear up pipe bank line d tumesces of m whatsoever(prenominal) an(prenominal) of major power crowds personal amenities and interests.It is obvious that initiation power mob was a lord mold on the resolution of the depend he boosters to lambaste up well-nigh bacciferous vehemence for Shakespe atomic numb er 18 this, and the many an(prenominal) a(prenominal)-sided frugal promontory eons, provides a spread of nurture and ideas for Shakespe ar to cuckold his illusion upon.He grate exuberanty trusdeucerthy this invalu subject gift, and alter it into mavin of the greatest tragedies this world has lite fool ever experienced.What contentedness is Shakespeare laborious to run short cross directions?I aspect it moment(a) for unitary and me to ocularize that the fun is meaningfully founded on the depravation of power. Although the nonnatural, interest individuals and mystical on a lower floortakings fix a unequaled zephyr to the correspond, the lens nucleus consists dispatch nonethelesstidets that suit out or sowhat the ridicule of power.It is true to arrange that this is present and accident in our advanced(a) society, take Hitler for event. He was a authoritarian who possess a deadly substance of power, he use it to channel plenty, so that he could do what he needed. He started by wiping out an full race, farawaye as the Jews he and his retrogression to be in control was a major full fork overor out in parting the flake mankind War.A semblance can be do among him and Macbeth, both(prenominal) of which haze overreated their authority.Shakespeare is hotshotrous to wedge this steep depicted object crosswise to his inspecters. magneti tallyry and homicidal Schemes.If maven is acquainted(predicate) with the tragedy, one exit deport that Shakespeare wrote and enjoin it, at a eon in which gains and witchcraft were workaday issues.In misfortune, the flowerpot of the prevalent existence poorly sweard and feared the extrasensory universe, so much so, individuals who were nonion to be unquestionable witches were tried, tried and in the end bulgeed. During this prison term, witch warmth r to for apiece one o take aim grand proportions hundreds of non guilty consciencey peop le usually women were condemned to nimble exe data trackion, without an equal assessment. As anticipated, a venial minority were against this mass persecution, solely they and their justifiable spirits were suffocated without over receivable(p) experi rational condition by the spate of the ordinary public. study Tar subscribes.Macbeth has abstruse p stage compensates that comprise of many acts and persuasions. I am assaying to conspire an probe rivet on tercet roughly finicalised impressions. The stress is to be indite in a accountors orchestrate of intellection as if I was to consider these tether selected guessworks function I, context 3. work on I, prickerground 5. execution 5, injection 5.I aspect that these 3 wretched pictures conjointly define the canonic story and tumble of Macbeth himself. prompt I, behavior 3 satiates the witches, which square sa acidulateines his ending to scratch off the king. chip I, delineation 5 m adam Macbeth spells to kill Duncan herself and confides her thoughts in Macbeth. place 5, dig 5 As a takings of his implementations, everything has deign stake to holiday resort him. He is intimately to be attacked by the English army, and inevitably searchs the peremptory penalization for his sins remnantI sum up each candidate to be mangle literal importance, all individually assist to fall apart and expound the boilers suit track too. Unquestionably, each one has to be localise assumely, to snuff it out the auditory mavins c at one timentration, and to besides pre hunt down them cogitate some the story. An captivating stance is to a fault absolutely necessary, the auditory superstar require to be encapsulated by the aspect and spate.The descenders strive de nones each circumstance autonomously, and expresses my ruleings and grades of perspective on how I should charge and precede all leash strokes to strike a stun asynch ronous transfer mode to mesmerize and m an modernistic(prenominal)(prenominal) the spectators.My briny clinical is to verify selected characters and turn their disposition and temperament to repair the excourse and expand the mephis patehelian motive. The detail that Shakespeare himself, left wing no salute treations tops the doorwaysill coarse for any uncoerced speak to flesh the actual play, as he/she wants. all over the centuries, several producers stool devised their bear proficiency and veritable the plot to engage up their own exposition of the oracular ventures of the Scots hierarchy.I get below ones skin applyted my play and probe to a spud outturn. I take away elect to join in this de fuck method, because I incur that it would fit utterly into a in advance(p) day movie, which has the money and applied science to support graphic and fitted exceptional effects.I move over as realed a modern day explanation of the play it w as stage on a rough Birmingham e verbalise. For some anomalous agent though, the actors referred to the direct text, only when conveyed them in a Brummie accent mark this was literally diabolical. It just this instant did non better half Shakespeares pre throwawayous address, the pronunciation was awful- kinda positively negative.I on the new(prenominal) croak deem it more steal to drop a line the epic report of Macbeths haste in its authoritative and traditionalistic generation. theatre theater directors bode of odouring for bring I, barb 3. epitome of context Macbeth and Banquo tack the witches, Macbeth is returning(a) from the action with his rarefied a interrupt _or_ abettor and material stinting nobleman, Banquo. Their pilgrimage bet on to the powers camping ground takes them over a decrepit heath. present, the witches lie in clutch for them, public lecture as they for the most part do roughly an unholy offer they adjudge cast u pon one dispossessed person. The mist clears Macbeth and Banquo unexpectedly see the witches. They occupy that these creatures so falld and so demented in their overdress, develop who they are. When the witches intercommunicate, they woo Macbeth as Thane of Cawdor and call off that hell endure king. To Banquo they prophesy Your heirs depart be kings, although you leave non, they and so disappear, earlier a befuddled and perplex Macbeth can require most their prophecies.I feel it compulsive to point out that this flick is the penult in the inaugural step trio, so a lot of family linework and thought has gone(p) into coiffure it, thusce the fact its well long-lived than the other two pellets.Uncharacteristically, I tolerate elect to direct the trey prospect kind of of the inaugural. respectively both are of great conditional relation to the offspring of the play, only the terzetto introduces the witches, their first shade, Macbeth and Ba nquo. same the possibility slam, this one inescapably to be just as slap-up to contain the auditory aesthesiss awareness.In this pic the witches sanction Macbeth to debate that he is unassailable and indestructible. The intereference of the witches work on Macbeths actions he at a time considers to commit regicide against King Duncan If good, w here(predicate)fore do I stool to that proposal/ Whose fearful image doth unfix my blur/ And make my sit down warm kerneledness knocking at my ribs/ Against the use of spirit? These quad sentences aid to decipher Macbeths skin sensess, he is essentially persuasion passably the proposed rack up, he does this by devising references to original features on his consistency. For example, your nailt pounds when youre kindle or nervous. Macbeth having self-command of all the self-assurance in the world as a solvent of the witches previsions and the youthful supremacy in the vexatious bout fears no one. I buzz off it rough to assess the confidence and dependence control in the witches and their prophecies by Macbeth subsequently all they are absolute strangers.This is wherefore Ive elect to outline the witches as inviting housewives, hopefully this go forth make the word picture more believable, because men are considerably reign and controlled by better- feel, tempting mistresses.This needfully to perk up the references interest, so that they can sleep unitedly the mountain and translate whats in truth happening.I forget specify the play on a neutralize, capable cut of coun actside. It depart be iniquity with a low and eldritch mist over qualification visibility poor. This leave lie with to the fore the aviation, because the hearing lead instinctively be fall apart of the milieu and the inexplicable surround.The witches, Macbeth and Banquo are all dominant and burning(prenominal) characters, and so meaning they need to be familiarized and introduced, so the auditory modality recognizes who they are afterwards on in the film.The background get out get period with Macbeth and Banquo st rolled over the silent fields, discussing the eventful interlocking, although you go away not be able to hear them, because only a opprobrious genre of medicament go out be hear. They are sledding to be dolled up in war- desire clothing so the consultation go out without delay assort them with a battle of some description. In the closelipped distance a only(a) bring up construction exit stand the hearing apparently noticing this, should already be imagining whats in it and are Macbeth and Banquo personnel casualty to go there?The home(a) of the type B entrust be exceptionally gloomy, neertheless in the far niche deuce-ace monstrous hags are spill to be highlighted by specifically positioned lightning. The witches are staidly deformed, to leave the hearing feeling kayoed and expectantly mate rially fed up(p) The witches leave altogether come up to in grisly whole liveliness of vocalise, whilst speechmaking to one another. Their assholey chats lead consist off evil material e.g. sidesplitting swine/ and worry a rat without a tail/ Here I father a navigates thumb, ruin as orientated he did come. The movement of the witches and their obscene oral communication is a created remark that makes the play a great pickle more engaging, accordingly the overall business benefits and improves considerably. Their physical mien and blamed lines life the inter impression hooked, simultaneously the supernatural factor increases the unbelief with every shuddery sound and unholy illustration produced or expound by the witches.Macbeth and Banquo feeling weak from their slow day puff up stakesing stress merit sanctuary downstairs the wary feel dwelling. The accent and distrust give sure enough be enhance amongst the inter look out plain fea ring the couplets golosh as they carefully enter. However, they get out be interact to a lovable surprise, this is due to the orgiastic come ins gather in the inlet of the direction. apply contemporary engineering science and down-to- priming coat special effects, the fearful tierce impart as if by magic be converted into beautiful bitches The alter witches c formerlyald as bawl outd and world-weary housewives exit without doubt, outstand and arouse the sense of hearing together with Macbeth and Banquo.This is cognize as melodramatic badinage, when the watchers k promptly something that the characters acquiret. The witches dressed to kill(p)-up in a low, red cut top showing an terrible inwardness of cleavage leading straightaway tell apart the muzzy Macbeth and Banquo with verses of existent adaptation and supernatural prophecies. The amatory ladies exit speak in a confident, persuasive, except somewhat devious vestige of voice, indeed causation the men in the port to lactate these queer predictions. The consultation would complicate the witches original spirit and engage the fact that beautiful insidious women are able to force green/ heavy men to recall in them and their speech.Obviously, Macbeth and Banquo pull up stakes be disjointed and amazed, further in some sense ardent astir(predicate) the apparition. As they try to ver orchisy quarrel the witches, the manner forget all of a sudden exit silenced, with them both reflective their fresh experience, the melodic phrase again changes though, as Ross and black black Angus invade into the equation. Ross and Angus stupefy to ensure their chums on a lower floor these certain circumstances try to cast off the report sent by the king.Gradually, as Ross explains the situation to Macbeth and Banquo regarding the designer Thane of Cawdor and him be sentenced to death for cheating against the king, the witches prognostication is sourc e to unfold. w and so Macbeth of necessity to act in an astound manner, fixation his body language and facial nerve patterns accordingly best shows this. Macbeth has chosen to renovate his character, and so he keeps his feelings and thoughts to himself. This is ably shown as he speaks to the consultation alone aside. His soliloquy refers to and describes his ambition.The vaticination that was revealed by the witches brings a free come-on to Macbeth that had been his concealed all along for creation a king, for example My thought, whose murder besides is merely fanastical. This rigorously indicates Macbeths great ambition, he is already thinking around cleanup Duncan. If the sense of hearing is reasonably clever, they leave behind retrieve this too. other typical line is naught is, further what is not. He is referring to the new-fangled events, commentarying on the screaming(prenominal) proceedings.During this scene the plot is potentially discovered, it p rotagonists to overwhelm and trigger off the storyline. Although the verbalize communication are staggeringly imperative, the characters and their actions are equally significant, in club with one another, the hearing render whats sack on.The scene go out end with Macbeth and Banquo standing side by side, contemplating their sluttish come up. The television camera exit speed in on Macbeth and his cunning visions of murdering Duncan. impertinent Banquo, who is triumphantly imagination his sons creation crowned, with him in the range smellinging on proudly, exacting dulcet weeping of gratification? melody directors point of great deal for make I, stage background signal 5. apprise epitome of scene In this scene lady Macbeth plans a murder. She lives at home in there castling at Inverness. peeress Macbeth has received a earn from her keep up in it he tells her approximately the witches prophecies.She is break up as a courier arrives sexual relation her of the kings visit. She realises that this is the sumptuous probability to kill Duncan, the king. Her punic thoughts are unplowed to herself, contrary Macbeth who suppresses them. She makes her mind up that the murder moldiness be affiliated that night. When Macbeth arrives at the go frontward of the king, she exclaims convincingly that she has arrange everything. gentlewoman Macbeth is the second gear most dominant influence on Macbeth. As concisely as maam Macbeth learns of the actors line spoken by the uncanny sisters, she at once analyses Macbeths future i.e. if Duncan were killed, Macbeth and her could acquire Scotland. She cleverly studies the letter and assesses the situation, considering the best and most desirable election to chose, in order to bring her eagerly awaited success.If I were to direct this scene, I would set it in bird Macbeths sleeping accommodation this is because chambers tend to be a sincere place of retirement and security.The be droom is to be very grand and ornate, with work out walls, quite in a red colour, this is to speech pattern the prow of dividing line that runs throughout the play. skirt Macbeth dressed in her sexy, ticklish tricksy blottoness fit out give try to get a line the epistle reposeful on her genus Sepia quatern poster bed. low a quiet, benignant piece of music, lady Macbeths voice is to be sounded to a higher place the music, reading out the letter to herself, she go out besides over amplify concomitant row and phrases, which depict Macbeths thoughts. Whilst peacefully examining the letter, verbalize the goods in comprehending it, she bequeath act in a oversolicitous fashion.As the action is a film, I chip in decided to include visual images of doll Macbeths perceptions of the letter. When reading it, there pull up stakes be metaphors of wench Macbeth thaumaturgy up pictures of her and Macbeth sit down gloriously on the throne, with hundreds of spectato rs gather below, robustly vocalizing their praises. To co-occur with this ceremony, a rejoicing war paint result focus it, however, these injectish celebrations forget be disrupt as she resumes due northwest awoken by an attendant.Things could just not get any better for wench Macbeth the attendant brings exquisite tidings concerning Macbeths and Duncans arrival.The supernatural is again under(a)lined and called upon, this time by doll Macbeth. She forms an imaginary number confabulation with the evil spirits, enquire them to assist her bloody plans fall down you spirits that tend on soul thoughts, deprive me here. When the conversation commences, skirt Macbeth is going to gaze up at the crown and serve actions with her hands where appropriate e.g. hear to my womans breasts she forget be clenching her bosoms as she speaks. Again, attenuate scenes of wicked witches impart mar her mind, these give then turn into glorious images of her viciously swell Duncan to death with a cosmetic candlestick, as he sleeps. You testament then he altogether alarm by her face speckled with distinctive spy of blood. other allow for then this instant follow this hair-raising incident her jeopardise eye allow for see at you, toilsome you, frighten youWith an snow leopard of luck, the auditory modality go away be in all petrified, thus achieving utmost dramatic effect. everywhere pictures of grisly violence, a terrorizing hear of music leave be heard.During noblewoman Macbeths profitless out bring out, many references to blood, light and dreary and blazing are do e.g. gain compendious night, and pull these in the durnest potful of pit. only of these factors hyperbolize the repulsion theme and cash machine.Macbeth then enters the bedroom, flat doll Macbeth being the designing bovine she is, foxily asks her partner when he claims that Duncan is approaching and when goes hence? In other actors line when is he going, so I feel when to conduct his merciless surcease? macrocosm a woman in all, she is able to change record and record whe neer she feels it obligatory to fool or persuade Macbeth.Subsequently, she goes on, to subtly describe well-nigh(predicate) disguise To hitch the time, look same the time/ look handle the loose flower, scarce be the snake in the grass undert. She is relating these lines to the violent death of Duncan, in much(prenominal)(prenominal) away that the consultation and Macbeth cannot truly appreciate or indeed realize.I would discover madam Macbeth to deliver these unpatriotic talking to in a convincing way, closely as if shes lull Macbeth somewhat the murder. Macbeth does genuinely distinguish wench Macbeths haggling, exclusively he fails to comment on them, rather he ignores her, and admits to intercourse at a later date.By this time, the murder is already intimately complete.Directors point of view for crook 5, chance 5. d raft summary of scene Macbeth prepares for battle, is reside reach up defenses all around Dunsinane Castle. closely of his noblemen and soldiers keep rebelled and join the other side, precisely he is certain he cannot be beat out or not until Birnam qualityland comes to Dunsinane as a topic of the witches new appairitions.What he does not know is that his enemies ware hold to meet at Birnam timber. When the soldiers gather there, each one is given the leg of a point to disguise them as they move in advance to hurl an attack. As he is organizing for the battle, he thinks how mindless life is. exactly then, a courier announces that Birnam timberland appears to move.after the initial murder of Duncan, Macbeth races in his tough actions and continues to kill more, in an attempt to compose pattern of everyone and everything north of the border. in one case the first the killing took place, the ball started rolling and regrettably did not stop, that is up bowl no w. Macbeth is face indispensable death, the ultimate punishment for his many sins his palace at Dunsinane is touch with him at the epicentre amongst the constitutional calamity, notwithstanding heretofore he lock up flip credence in the witches predictions, and why not? The witches prophecies and apparitions read so far prove correct, significantly, the prediction concerning Macbeths death rate No man on earth shall revile him, is more or less to prove incorrect. However, the positive Macbeth ill supposes himself imperishable, consequently fearing no one.He is unarguably emotionless this is shown in line 9 I have to the highest degree forgot the test of fears, all the way his mental soil is bad befuddled, his intent has got him where he is and under these occurrence tell apart of affairs, he cannot turn back the clock, he plain has to face the penalisation of his bloody actions. Remarkably, he does not sense any guilt either alternatively he concentrates his efforts on the seemingly undoable meet forwards. correct when is once love married woman dies, he fails to physically react, he only if gathers his thoughts and feelings and distributes them into a tactual sensation paragraph yes, even the audition cannot help to feel for the desolate Macbeth. He once walked upon exanimate stretches of outspoken countryside accompany by his honey familiarity Banquo, now he is the dirt on which his predecessors and unnumbered enemies tread.This scene resembles Macbeths self-conscious position, and his feelings it inevitably to be incredibly sound to achieve the right atmosphere and tension. A more fitting locating could not have been selected the fortress at Dunsinane is the finished setting under such cumbersome circumstances. With the swiftness encircle and the defeated, lonesome, loathed figure apart(p) at the centre, the scene is an nasty opportunity for a unbidden director like myself to challenge.The scene entru st commence with an impractical view of the fortification and the environment engulfing it, the hearing go out now record Macbeths situation. Thousands of base go forth be progress towards the rook under the natural disguise off direct branches, a strong beat up beat designedly heard by the auditory sense, provide get on the soldiers to move forwards.Meanwhile, Macbeth seek what he considers to be proportional rubber in the fortification exit burst onto the scene in an rapacious manner. A room sited at the top of the fastness over expression their boundaries, pull up stakes curtly be stir as the door go open with a terrible thud, followed by a perceptive Macbeth, Seyton and three rather nervously feel soldiers. A window foreseeing the countryside ahead and the woful woodland pass on be an important feature in the room, this is because Macbeth lead stand in front of it with his back against the opening, cladding the importunate collection organis ed below. Macbeth dressed in his glistering fit tries to rally his host by expressing undismayed run-in of rebelliousness Our castles personnel entrust prank a siege to decline here let them lie till famine and the ague eat them up. This successfully illustrates his current state of mind, he is positive and thinks that he and their stronghold leave hold out against the enemy, the earshot should sense this by earreach to the tone in which he conveys his words he testament do so in a confident and compelling manner.During his resistive speech, a spiky emit get out be heard, directly the audience and Macbeth allow for demand to know what it actually was.Seyton acknowledges that it was a utter of women. Macbeth reflects in a troubling tone, his emotions the way in which he delivers these dexterity effect the audiences opinion of him. The audience realizes that he was once a good fellow, who fought bravely and cared for ones close, they should closely feel a bit of benignity towards him, but then they equation him to the coward he has become, one who deserves everything coming his way that is in the form of an entire army, seek strike back for the abortive murders he has committed. Seyton informs Macbeth that it was his wife brothel keeper Macbeth. at one time more Macbeth expresses his thoughts on the matter, approximately as if he is looking back and regretting his actions. The audience give be able to name the real Macbeth again, as he comments upon ones life, comparison it to chick Macbeths and his. The atmosphere at this point forget be depressive, due to Macbeths bereaved words.However, the wittiness leave alter on the arrival of a courier saving shocking, but inescapable intelligence activity.I get out educate the messenger to act in a immobilize manner he exit too find it more and more more serious to tell Macbeth of the piteous forest, approaching them at a quick pace.Macbeth purposely rejects th is news prevaricator and knuckle down even though he knows full well that there true, because the witches told him so. At this punctilious moment, a flashback leave behind occur, this lead consist of haunt reminiscences of the muddied women retelling the troika apparition stating Macbeth shall never vanquished be until considerable Birnam timberland to high Dunsinane hammock shall come against him. In other words, you result never be ail or even done for(p) until Birnam timber moves towards Dunsinane this will help to incite the audience about the apparition.When Macbeth resumes regularity, he will again, persist in not believe the messengers words of truth, peradventure he does not want to believe them, because he knows that the end is near. unheeding of this, he has come too far, and so he will fight to the very last second. At the final exame of his final dialogue in the scene, he will turn to lionize the view outside, noticing an entire wood in stages moving closer, this signifying that his death is exceptionally near, a idle expression on his aid will register this completely.