Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Plunkitt of Tammany Hall Essay - 1541 Words

Plunkitt of Tammany Hall 1. Honest Graft and Dishonest Graft- When Plunkitt was tipped off about something in the city or someone wanting to built a park or something, he sees the opportunity and he takes it. He buys up the land before they do. When they see that they are going to need the land, he sells it to them at a much higher price than what he paid for it, giving him a nice profit. That is honest graft. Several politicians are accused of stealing dollars from the state’s treasury, this is an example of dishonest graft. The condemnation commissioners came along and found piece after piece of land under the name George Plunkitt of the Fifteenth Assembly District, New York City. They wondered how he knew just what to buy.†¦show more content†¦6. To Hold Your District: Study Human Nature and Act According’- Plunkitt talks about books being a hindrance and the only way to last is to know everyone in your district. He talks about looking after the people, know what they are interested in and help them with what they want. Help the people and they will help you on election day. 7. On the Shame of the Cities- In Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities, Plunkitt says that he does not know how to make decisions. He talks about the Philadelphia Republican Gang and Tammany Hall being almost the same. Plunkitt thinks he is all wrong. Plunkitt seems to talk about politicians stealing, saying that they in 1905 are no worse than 1835 as a class. It just means that the old timers had nothing to steal, while the politicians in 1905 were surrounded by temptations. 8.Ingratitude in Politics- Plunkitt talks about how he was back stabbed by one of the people he took in hand, â€Å"The† McManus. His friends told him that this would happen but he did not believe them. McManus ran ahead of Plunkitt in their own district. He later broke his ties with him. When a district leader is voted in it is like a solemn contract. If you do good and help us out, we will re-elect you next term. If you do not, you will be swatted down and will not be reelected. 9. Reciprocity in Patronage- Plunkitt talks about him being on top and doing favors for the republicans, and when theyShow MoreRelatedPlunkitt of Tammany Hall Essay842 Words   |  4 PagesKaung Myat Thu @ Keith Professor Traverso English – 119 14th October 2012 Media Influence the Identity and culture Over the last few decades, ever since the televisions and computers were invented, self ethnic identities have been influenced because of the progress in technology, which we commonly known as media, and whether the globe benefits from this approach or not has become a controversial issue amongst most of the people in the world. As what survey shows that a dominant group of peoplesRead MoreEssay about George Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall720 Words   |  3 PagesGeorge Washington Plunkitt of Tammany Hall Everybody is talkin these days about Tammany men growin rich on graft, but nobody thinks of drawin the distinction between honest graft and dishonest graft. With this sentence in the first chapter Plunkitt sets the tone for his short treatise on New York City politics while Tammany Hall ran the show. George Washington Plunkitt was a senator in New York during the turn of the 19th Century to the 20th Century. He was very successful in politicsRead MoreBook Report of Plunkitt of Tammany Hall Essay example949 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"An Analysis of Plunkitt of Tammany Hall† William Bryce History 1302 Austin Community College November 30, 2011 The purpose of this book report is to analyze the themes in Plunkitt of Tammany Hall by William L. Riordon. 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Without this participation, there is no way that society can reflect their interests and the whole system of democracy falls apart. Not everyone agreed with Hewitt’s view of intelligence and education as the key factor in government success. Tammany Hall and other political machines obtained and maintained power through what is know as the â€Å"spoils system† whereby they give positions to their supporters in return for their votes and loyalty. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which requiredRead MoreBoyer Dbq Teacher Guide10764 Words   |  44 PagesAmerican life. Can be contrasted with Document C, in which Steiner points out the lack of such agencies in Chicago at an earlier time. Here, Addams criticizes teachers for forcing a type of assimilation disruptive to immigrant families. I—Plunkitt of Tammany Hall—Like Documents C and E, Riordan looks at city government’s relation to urban immigrants. While often cited for corruption by those with Victorian moral standards, urban political machines linked immigrants to the greater society and probably

Monday, December 16, 2019

Afghan Women Revealed Free Essays

In the year 2001 2002 the United States of America engaged in a political campaign for the war in Afghanistan. In her essay â€Å"To unveil the threat of terror†, Dana Cloud accuses the United States government to construct a hypocritical justification for the war in Afghanistan. The United States used the picture of veiled woman and children and presented them to the united citizens as oppressed and needing help. We will write a custom essay sample on Afghan Women Revealed or any similar topic only for you Order Now Dana Cloud argues that the real motif of the war was to obtain economical and geopolitical control of the territory of Afghanistan. In this essay we will analyze one of the photographs that played a big important role in the Afghanistan war campaign of the United States. Our goal here will not be to discuss the real reason of the war but to determine if the pictures really represented Afghan women and children as oppressed and needing help. We will then try to determine if the united states where in fact able to help this women. Based on our conclusion we will propose a more parsimonious property of these images: a property that all photographs possess and that Morris calls an express train to error. The afghan woman is a photograph of a young afghan girl taken by National Geographic photographs in a refugee camp in Afghanistan. The girl in the photograph is wearing a red torn burka and her piercing eyes are gazing at the viewer. Some say that she looks angry, others that she looks desperate and needs help. The truth is that we will never really know what she felt at that moment. But what we can be sure of in that picture is that if the United States had not gone to war in afghan we would not have been able to gaze at her photograph for the simple reason that in afghan culture, women are not allowed to show their faces. In an American perspective, the United States had helped this young afghan girl to be free and express her identity. Ironically although the picture promotes individuality and freedom, the picture also oppresses individuality and freedom as well. It possesses a dimension of individuated aggregate. They were no name in the photograph just â€Å"the afghan woman†. By naming the photograph the Afghan woman and publishing it in the United States Press, the photograph served as a representation of all the afghan women and thus ignored the specific individual represented in the photograph. An American citizen ignorant of afghan culture and proud of his own culture and belief will automatically perceive the girl in the photograph as freed and experience what Dana Could referred to as paternalism: a need to protect her. Thus we find that Dana could argument that the United States spread an image of savior during the 2001-2002 war campaign. Did they really save this girl, or the other afghan woman? The eyes of the Afghan girl had captivated the world so much that the National Geographic photograph that had taken her photograph was sent to search for her. Mc Curry says that he went first with his search team to the original place where the photograph was taken: the refugee camp of Nasir Bagh. A man who heard about the search told them he knew the girl in the picture. He claimed she was his childhood friend and that she had returned to Afghanistan near Tora Bora.. Mc curry was informed by the team that He told them that she was a childhood friend and that she went back to Afghanistan and in she had returned to Afghanistan years ago, he said, and now lived in the mountains near Tora Bora. When McCurry got to the place and saw her walk I the room he told himself: this is her. Thus â€Å"the girl with the piercing green eyes† or â€Å"the afghan girl† was identified. Her name was Sharbat Gula, and she was Pashtun, one of the most violent tribe of Afghanistan. Mc Curry took a new photograph of her and her eyes were still burning with ferocity. Her eyes were still sea green, big haunted and haunting green eyes. In them you could read the tragedy of a land drained by war not the relief and freedom that the United States should have brought with them. If the United States had helped this girl and the other women by going in war with the Taliban, this girl her eyes would have looked happier, less angry, or simply different. We would have noticed a change, but the only change we notice is the change of a girl into a woman. This change is not relevant to the United States going to war with afghan but to nature. When observing the afghan girl one should not make biased assumption. Although being unbiased is thorough, it is not impossible. While looking at the photo of the afghan girl a viewer should see all facets of the photograph or image being observed. While the photograph of the afghan woman portrays the oppression that afghan women experience, it also expresses the tragedy and struggled experienced by women in war. As Ell Morris described in his†¦. Photographs and images are an express train to error and believing is seeing. When one observes the photographs of the afghan women, one sees what he wants to see: a women that need help from the united states,a women that is angry, a women that is ravaged by a war ,a woman that is ashamed to show her face,a woman that is revolted. hey are so many interpretation that can be drawn from the afghan woman,but none of them can really grasp the reality that the photographs bring. it is just as ell morris said. While photograph reveals important some things, they hide or misrepresent others. Thus the photograph of the afghan woman has one very parsimonious property. a property that all photographs share: to represent a blurry reality. However although the photograph is not a real represe ntation of afghan woman, it remains true that they are oppressed and ravaged by the tragedy that is war. How to cite Afghan Women Revealed, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

A Doll House free essay sample

A Doll House written by Henrik Ibsen is a realist play written in the 19th century. The use of symbolism, metaphors and dramatic irony were used by Ibsen to portray the expected role of the 19th century wife. The choice of Ibsen’s material and its presentation show that the author expected some contribution from women toward the solution of the cultural and social problems. ( Nesarimus 33) The use of these literary terms allowed the reader to see how Nora, in a sense, rebelled against what was expected of her. A Doll House contained a feminist message which brought questions to the table in regards to the role of women in society. Symbolism is portrayed throughout the play. A symbol, defined by Oxford English Dictionary online, is something that stands for, represents, or denotes something else: not by exact resemblance but by vague suggestion or by some accidental or conventional relation. (Oxford Second Edition 1989) Nora’s fancy dress costume, the Christmas tree and the Tarantella dance symbolized the movement towards freedom of a woman victim to her society. Nora’s fancy dress costume was chosen by Torvald. Nora wore the dress for him. This reinforced the idea that it was Nora’s superficial qualities, such as her beauty, that Torvald most appreciated and was interested in. In Act II the Nurse brought the dress to Nora. (Ibsen 2205) Nora discovered the dress to be torn. It was Mrs. Linde’s idea to repair the dress. Nora on the other hand looked at the dress as if it was beyond repair. The difference in how Mrs. Linde and Nora looked at the dress symbolized how they viewed the marriage of Nora and Torvald. Mrs. Linde believed that if Nora was truthful with her husband the marriage could be repaired like the dress. Nora believed that her actions of dishonesty and forgery sent her marriage to point beyond repair. In Nora’s eyes her dress and marriage were not repairable. Another symbolic object used by Ibsen is the Christmas tree. The Christmas tree symbolized Nora’s role in the household. A Christmas tree is a decoration used to bring joy and warmth to a home. Nora’s position in the home was like that of the tree. She was to look good and be seen not heard. At the beginning of the second act the stage directions indicate that the Christmas tree is â€Å"disheveled†. (Ibsen 2205) The tree being disheveled symbolized Nora’s psychological condition. At that point in the play Nora’s dishonest ways had caught up with her. The Christmas tree showed a sign of break down just as Nora did. Nora was unable to keep her emotions and guilty actions contained. By Christmas day the Christmas tree was stripped of its decorations and Nora was stripped from the hope her secret would not be revealed. Nora believed at that point in the play that Krogstad’s letter would inevitably be read by her husband revealing her secret. The marriage was left waiting its destiny like that of the Christmas tree. The Tarantella Dance is a third symbol used by Ibsen. The Tarantella is an Italian dance generally danced by a couple or line of couples. The dance is named after the tarantula spider. The poisonous bite by a tarantula spider was believed to cause tarantism. Tarantism is described as an uncontrollable urge for wild dancing. ( Oxford Second Edition 1989) Torvald helps Nora practice the Tarantella. Nora persuades Torvald into watching and instructing her how to dance. She did this to prevent her husband from opening the mail which contained the letter from Krogstad. The letter would reveal her secret and lies. Torvald attempted to give his wife instructions at which time she danced more wildly. Nora needed to keep her husband entertained to keep him from retrieving the mail. Nora dancing wildly symbolized tarantism. She danced wildly to rid herself of the poison. Torvald told his wife, â€Å"But Nora darling you dance as if your life is at stake. † Nora replies â€Å" And it is. (Ibsen 2218) The poison is the threat contained in the letter written in the letter by Krogstad. The symbols used in the play reinforce Ibsen’s belief of what was or should be a 19th century wife. Like symbolism, metaphors are also used throughout the play by Ibsen. A Metaphor, defines by Oxford English Dictionary, is a figure of speech in which a name or descriptive word or phrase is transferred to an object or action different from, but analogous to, that to which is literally applicable. ( Oxford Revision 2008) The Doll in A Doll House is a metaphor. In Act III Nora tells her husband that he and her father have treated her like a doll-child. (Ibsen 2230) Nora did not have any opinions of her own and she believed that she was only played with by Torvald and her father. Nora states that the men committed â€Å"a great sin† against her. ( Ibsen 2230) Neither man allowed her to grow up, discouraging her to do so along the way. Throughout the play Torvald called his wife pet names. The word little is usually tied to the beginning of the name. I believe that Torvald sees his wife as a child. Upon discovering the letter from Krogstad, Torvald told Nora â€Å"Playtime is over, now for the schooling. † (Ibsen 2230) He provided her with money, told her how to dress, and gave her orders. Torvald picked a costume for Nora as if a mother would pick an outfit out for a baby. Torvald played dress up with his wife as little girls do so with their baby dolls. Torvald wanted and insisted that Nora remain dependant upon him. Torvald used Nora for amusement and as a decorative and beautiful object. Pet names such as little squirrel, skylark and songbird were also metaphors used by Ibsen. Torvald used these names for Nora to show that he did not see her as an equal. Nora’s role in Torvald’s home was to delight him. The pet names used were those of all wild animals. Squirrels, skylarks and songbirds do not belong in cages. Like the wild animals, Nora could not stand living in the Torvald’s restricted home. The metaphors used throughout the play help to portray the role Torvald believed Nora was to uphold in his home. A third literary term used throughout A Doll House is irony. Irony serves the purpose of accentuating a story and adds to its creativity and originality. Dramatic irony, defined by Oxford’s Dictionary, is the incongruity created when the significance of a character’s speech or actions is revealed to the audience but unknown to the character concerned. ( Oxford Second Edition 1989) The dramatic irony used in the play involves unconscious hypocrisy. In unconscious hypocrisy the speaker intends to be understood as meaning what his utterance would ordinarily be understood to mean, but is unaware that the situation is at odds with this meaning. (Baker) An example of this was portrayed in the scene in which Torvald reacts to Krogstad’s letter. All your father’s flimsy values have come out in you. † (Ibsen 2227) â€Å"Oh how I’m punished for letting him off. I did it for your sake and you repay me like this. † (Ibsen 2227) In these statements Torvald revealed that he himself committed perjury in covering up for Nora’s father. As a young lawyer, Torvald had been commissioned by the city authorities to look into allegations that Nora’s father had mishandled funds. (Baker) Torvald did not except the plea of ignorance by his wife Nora. In his eyes it was not an excuse. Torvald knew that his own affidavit as the special investigator in the case of Nora’s father was criminal. Torvald was a hypocrite in the sense that the laws apply to others but not him. Torvald declared his wife morally unfit due to her lies. Yet he did not see himself in the same way. Ibsen used Dramatic Irony to bring issues to the table in regards to what was expected by a 19th century women. Torvald played the male dominant role. Nora was to play the role of an obedient wife who was seen and not heard. Nora’s role fell to the wayside as her dishonest actions in the past were brought to the attention of Torvald. What was good for the goose was not good for the gander. As you can see Ibsen’s use of symbolism, metaphors and dramatic irony gave way for an entertaining play. The use of these literary terms stimulated the reader’s mind and allowed them a more in depth view of the wife’s role in the 19th century. Ibsen’s work allowed him to express how he felt in regards to women and their social status. The meaning of the symbolism, metaphors and irony is up for the individual reader’s interpretation but it is clear to me what Ibsen meant by the way of the literary terms.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Tale Of Two Cities By Charles Dickens Essays -

Tale Of Two Cities By Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens contained many themes that are practiced throughout the book. Two of these themes are altruism and resurrection. The characters Madame Defarge and Sydney Carton are used to exemplify these themes. Sydney Carton demonstrated an altruistic nature while Madame Defarge had a self-seeking disposition. Carton displayed his charitable nature when Lucie was the object of Mr. Stryver's affection. When Mr. Stryver asked for Sydney's approval, he said that he supported him in his pursuit even though Carton held a secret passion for Lucie. Before Darnay's marriage to Lucie, Sydney told Lucie of his hopeless devotion to her and described himself ?to be undeserving.? He also volunteered to ?embrace any sacrifice? for her and those dear to her. Carton's altruism culminated when Darnay became incarcerated in La Force. When Mr. Lorry told Sydney of Darnay's predicament, he traveled to France to offer his help. Carton fulfilled his offer to Lucie when he drugged Darnay and took his place in the impending death sentence. Madame Defarge, ?imbued from her childhood with a brooding sense of wrong,? had no traditional morals in her and is the opposite of Carton. In Dickens' vivid description of her, she is described as a ?tigress? and ?absolutely without pity.? Her hatred of the Evremondes had grown so profusely that she intended to execute Lucie and her daughter in addition to Darnay who had committed no crime but ?was to die for the sins of his forefathers.? In addition, she ignored her husband's profound pleas to spare Dr. Manette and exclaimed to herself, ?No, I cannot spare him!? Resurrection embodies both Sydney Carton and Therese Defarge. Sydney is resurrected from a desolate life of working under Stryver to sacrificing his life for the sake of Darnay. In the beginning of the story, Sydney is described as a lowly ?jackal? in service to Stryver. He drinks excessively with Stryver and is careless in regard to clothing and speech. After Darnay's trial, Carton is described as ?so careless as to be almost insolent.? The trial is followed by a drink with Charles. After Carton has traveled to France, Carton has abstained from drinking and has liberated himself from Stryver. Before his death, he says, ?I am the Resurrection and the Life, saith the Lord: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: and whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die,? which exemplifies his own belief in his resurrection. At his death his face was described as ?sublime and prophetic.? Madame Defarge is resurrected along with the millions of other peasants in the revolution. They restore the power of the people and Madame Defarge is prominent among them. She is now able to take her revenge on the Evremondes. She accomplishes this by her testimony that sends Darnay to jail and attempting to send Lucie and her daughter to jail. Sydney was at first thought to be a careless wretch but proved that he was a kind caring person. His last words sum up his character, ?It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to than I have ever known.? Madame Defarge had been imbued so replete with hatred for the aristocrat class and especially the Evremondes that it was not in her nature to have altruistic characteristics. Similarly, her resurrection was also a resurrection of hatred.